Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things

1st Edition

By Huansheng Ning

CRC Press

260 pages | 51 B/W Illus.

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Although the Internet of Things (IoT) will play a key role in the development of next generation information, network, and communication technologies, many are still unclear about what makes IoT different from similar concepts.

Answering fundamental questions about IoT architectures and models, Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things introduces essential IoT concepts from the perspectives of mapping and interaction between the physical world and the cyber world. It addresses key issues such as strategy and education, particularly around unit and ubiquitous IoT technologies. Supplying a new perspective on IoT, the book covers emerging trends and presents the latest progress in the field. It also:

  • Outlines a fundamental architecture for future IoT together with the IoT layered model
  • Describes various topological structures, existence forms, and corresponding logical relationships
  • Establishes an IoT technology system based on the knowledge of IoT scientific problems
  • Provides an overview of the core technologies, including basic connotation, development status, and open challenges

The book examines ubiquitous sensing, networking, and communications, as well as information management involved in unit IoT. It describes global IoT applications and includes coverage of ubiquitous, local, industrial, national, and transnational IoT. Presenting detailed case studies that illustrate various application scenarios, the text considers the main IoT supporting technologies including resource management, loop control in actuation, session management, space-time consistency, security and privacy, energy management, spectrum management, nanotechnology, quantum technology, and big data.

Table of Contents


IoT Concept

Related Concepts to IoT

The Intrinsic Characteristics of IoT

IoT Development and Application

Future IoT Vision


Architecture and Fundamentals

Some Research on IoT Architecture

Ubiquitous IoT (U2IoT) Architecture

Unit IoT Definition and Its Architecture Design

Ubiquitous IoT Definition and Its Architecture Design

Some Layered Models for IoT

Three-Layer Model

Four-Layer Model

Eight-Layer Model

Discussion on the above Layered Models

Layered Model Proposed and Social Attributes Discussion for U2IoT

Layered Model Designed for U2IoT

Layer Description and Social Attributes for Unit IoT

Layer Description and Social Attributes for Ubiquitous IoT

IoT Development Phases Summary and Discussion

Early Stage

Unit IoT Stage

Industrial/Local IoT Stage

National IoT

Science Category and Supporting Technologies for IoT

Science Category Based on Cyber-Physical-Social Aspects

Supporting Technologies



Unit Internet of Things


Sensors and Actuators



Ubiquitous Sensing

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)


Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)

Ultra-Wideband (UWB)


Infrared Data Transmission

Networking and Communications

Mobile Communication Technology

Third-Generation Technology (3G)

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

Fourth-Generation Technology (4G)

Next-Generation Internet Technology

Management and Data Centers (M&DCs)

Pervasive Management

Object/Entity Management

Network Management

Service Management

Data Fusion and Data Mining

Case Study for Unit IoT


Asset Management

Biometrics Identification


Information Aggregation

Smart Home

Satellite Remote Sensing System

Safety Awareness

Bird Strike Avoidance Radar System

River Navigation Safety System

Monitoring and Control

Precision Manufacturing System



Ubiquitous Internet of Things


Local Internet of Things

Local IoT Concept

Main Characteristics of Local IoT

Case Study: Smart City

Case Study: Logistics Network of China

Pearl River Delta (PRD)

Industrial Internet of Things

Industrial IoT Concept

Main Characteristics of Industrial IoT

Geographical Dispersion

Multiuser Orientation

An Example: Smart Grid

National Internet of Things

National IoT Concept

National Development Planning

Management of National IoT

Transnational Internet of Things Application


An Example: Transnational Logistics IoT in ACFTA

Global Application IoT and a Typical Example


Case Study: Global Logistics IoT

Conclusion and Discussion


Resource Management


Object Coding and Resolving

Object Coding Discussion

Coding for ID Objects

Coding for nID Objects

Combined Coding for Objects with ID and nID

Resolving Discussion for nID Objects

Space-Time Information Resolving

Unique Attributes (UA) Resolving

Nonunique Attributes (NA) Resolving

Resource Naming

Resource Addressing

Resource Discovery

Resource Allocation

Resource Management Scheme in U2IoT

Context Information

Resource Management Scheme for U2IoT

Resource Management in Unit IoT

Resource Management in Ubiquitous IoT



Loop Control in Actuation


Session Management


Single-Session Management in IoT

Multiple-Session Management in IoT



Space-Time Consistency and Location Privacy


Space-Time Registration in Unit IoT

Time Synchronization

Object Localization

Time Registration for Unit IoT

Space Registration for Unit IoT

Space-Time Registration for Ubiquitous IoT

Time Registration for Ubiquitous IoT

Space Registration for Ubiquitous IoT

Space-Time Consistency Discussion in U2IoT

A Case Study in an Airport

Location Privacy

Main Characteristics of Location Privacy

Location Privacy-Preserving Mechanism

Privacy Policy

Anonymity and Pseudonymity


Challenges and Open Issues



Security and Privacy


Security Challenges in U2IoT

Security Requirements

CIA Triad



Privacy Preservation

Security Attacks




Privacy Disclosure

The Security Framework for U2IoT

Information Security

Physical Security

Management Security

A Proposed Hybrid Authentication and Hierarchical Authorization Scheme

The Security Protocol Suite in Unit IoT (UnSPs)

The In-Group Hybrid Authentication Protocol in UnSPs

The Out-Group Centralized Authorization Protocol in UnSPs

The Security Protocol Suite in Ubiquitous IoT (UbSPs)

The Centralized Authentication Protocol in UbSPs

The Distributed Authority Transfer Protocol in UbSPs

The Centralized Authority Transfer Protocol in UbSPs

The Distributed Authority Sharing Protocol in UbSPs

Security Analysis



Privacy Preservation

Entity Activity Cycle–Based Security Solution

In the Preactive Phase

In the Active Phase


Access Control

Secure Routing

Advanced Signature

Zero-Knowledge Proof

Data Aggregation

In the Postactive Phase

Intrusion Detection

Intrusion Tolerance and Threshold Cryptography



Energy Management


Energy Management in Unit IoT

Energy Supply Management in Unit IoT

Energy Demand Management in Unit IoT

Supply-Demand Balance Management in Unit IoT

Energy Management in Ubiquitous IoT

Conclusion and Discussion


Spectrum Management


Spectrum Management System, Equipment, and Technology

National Spectrum Management System

Spectrum Monitoring and Management Equipment

Technological Innovation and Spectrum Management

The Vision, Challenge, and Scheme of Spectrum Management in IoT

Spectrum Management Visions and Challenges

Spectrum Management Scheme in IoT

Spectrum Management in Unit IoT

Spectrum Management in Ubiquitous IoT





Nanotechnology in Ubiquitous Sensing

Nanotechnology-Based New Sensors and Actuators

Nanoscale Sensor Networks

Nanotechnology in Communication Networks

High-Performance Routing and Switching Devices

Radio Frequency (RF) Communication

Nanotechnology in High-Performance Computing


Quantum Technology


Quantum Technology: Driving IoT Development

Making Sensor Networks More Powerful

Making Communication More Secure

Making Massive Data Processing More Efficient


Big Data


Technology and Application

Some Typical Technologies for Big Data

Application Platform and Solution




About the Author

Huansheng Ning, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University. He was born in Anhui, China, and received a B.S. from Anhui University, China, and a Ph.D. from Beihang University, China. From 2002 to 2003, Dr. Ning worked at Aisino Corporation, Beijing, China. From 2004 to 2005, he was a post-Ph.D. at Beihang University. He has presided over several research projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), and other organizations. He has published many papers and books on radio frequency identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT). Dr. Ning serves as an editor on Advances in Internet of Things (2012-Present), is a guest editor for the Journal of Universal Computer Science Special Issue on Internet of Things (JUCS), and coeditor for The Internet of Things: From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems (Taylor & Francis Group). He also serves as a chair or program committee member for international conferences/workshops, for example, program chair (IEEE iThings 2012), program committee member (AMT 2012), K15947. Internet of Things and CPS track chair (IEEE CIT’12), workshop chair (IEEE iThings 2011), and general chair (UMES 2011). Dr. Ning’s current research focuses on Internet of Things, electromagnetic sensing, and aviation security.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Production & Operations Management
COMPUTERS / Networking / General