Urban Water Security: Managing Risks: UNESCO-IHP, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Urban Water Security: Managing Risks

UNESCO-IHP, 1st Edition

Edited by Blanca Jimenez Cisneros, JOAN B ROSE

CRC Press

324 pages

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Paperback: 9780415485678
pub: 2009-03-24
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Description

Understanding the impacts of urbanization on the urban water cycle and managing the associated health risks demand adequate strategies and measures. Health risks associated with urban water systems and services include the microbiological and chemical contamination of urban waters and outbreak of water-borne diseases, mainly due to poor water and sanitation in urban areas, and the discharge as well as the disposal of inadequately treated, or untreated, industrial and domestic wastewater. Climate change only exacerbates these problems, as alternative scenarios need to be taken into consideration in urban water risk management.

Urban Water Security: Managing Risks – the result of a project by UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme on the topic – addresses issues associated with urban water risks. The first section of the volume describes risks associated with urban water systems and services. The volume then discusses the concept of risk management for urban water systems and explores different approaches to managing and controlling urban water risks. A concluding section presents case studies on managing urban water risks.

Urban Water Series - UNESCO-IHP, ISSN 1749-0790

Following from the Sixth Phase of UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme (2002–2007), the Urban Water Series – UNESCO-IHP addresses fundamental issues related to the role of water in cities and the effects of urbanization on the hydrological cycle and water resources. Focusing on the development of integrated approaches to sustainable urban water management, the Series should inform the work of urban water management practitioners, policy-makers and educators throughout the world.

Series Editors

Cedo Maksimovic, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

J. Alberto Tejada-Guibert, International Hydrological Programme, UNESCO, Paris, France

Table of Contents

1 Introduction *

2 Drinking water – Potential health effects caused by wastewater disposal *

  • 2.1 Introduction *
  • 2.2 Direct and indirect wastewater reuse *
  • 2.3 Microbiological risks *
  • 2.3.1 Viruses *
  • 2.3.2 Bacteria *
  • 2.3.3 Protozoa *
  • 2.3.4 Helminths *
  • 2.4 Risk reduction of pathogens in drinking water *
  • 2.5 Chemical risks *
  • 2.6 Treated wastewater in surface waters *
  • 2.7 The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water *
  • 2.8 Risk management of microbial and chemical hazards *
  • 2.9 Implementation of Water Safety Plans *
  • 2.10 HACCP *
  • 2.11 Hazard analysis *
  • 2.12 Conclusions *
  • 2.13 References *

3 Microbial health risks and water quality *

  • 3.1 Introduction *
  • 3.2 The traditional icons of waterborne disease *
  • 3.2.1 Cholera *
  • 3.2.2 Typhoid *
  • 3.2.3 Hepatitis *
  • 3.2.4 Generic diarrhoea *
  • 3.3 Emerging diseases and zoonotic pathogens *
  • 3.3.1 Cryptosporidium *
  • 3.3.2 Cyclospora *
  • 3.3.3 E. coli O157:H7 *
  • 3.3.4 Helicobacter *
  • 3.4 Risk assessment and control of waterborne pathogens *
  • 3.4.1 Use of quantitative microbial risk assessment *
  • 3.4.2 Interventions to reduce enteric diseases *
  • 3.4.3 Vaccinations *
  • 3.5 Conclusions and recommendations *
  • 3.6 References *

4 Chemical health risks *

  • 4.1 Introduction *
  • 4.2 Human health risks *
  • 4.2.1 An overview on exposure factors *
  • 4.2.2 Human exposure in urban water cycle *
  • 4.3 Risk sources and risk compounds in urban water cycle *
  • 4.3.1 Releases to water *
  • 4.3.2 Chemical compounds *
  • 4.4 Inorganic chemical risk agents: Sources and human health diseases of concern *
  • 4.4.1 Nitrates and nitrites *
  • 4.4.2 Fluoride *
  • 4.4.3 Toxic metals *
  • 4.4.3.1 Arsenic *
  • 4.4.3.2 Mercury *
  • 4.4.3.3 Lead *
  • 4.5 Organic chemical risk agents: Sources and human health diseases of concern *
  • 4.5.1 Hydrocarbons compounds *
  • 4.5.2 Chlorinated organic compounds *
  • 4.5.2.1 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) *
  • 4.5.2.2 Solvents *
  • 4.5.2.3 Trihalomethanes (THMs) *
  • 4.5.3 Pesticides *
  • 4.5.4 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) *
  • 4.5.5 New chemicals *
  • 4.6 Chemical risks in urban cities in developed countries *
  • 4.6.1 Fluoride *
  • 4.6.1.1 China *
  • 4.6.1.2 Japan *
  • 4.6.1.3 United States of America *
  • 4.6.2 Arsenic (As) *
  • 4.6.2.1 Canada *
  • 4.6.2.2 China *
  • 4.6.2.3 United States of America *
  • 4.6.3 Mercury *
  • 4.6.3.1 Canada Arctic *
  • 4.6.3.2 China *
  • 4.6.3.3 Japan *
  • 4.6.3.4 United States of America *
  • 4.6.4 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) *
  • 4.6.4.1 Netherlands *
  • 4.6.4.2 United States of America *
  • 4.6.5 Trihalomethanes (THMs) *
  • 4.6.5.1 Alaska *
  • 4.6.5.2 Canada *
  • 4.6.5.3 United Kingdom *
  • 4.6.5.4 United States of America *
  • 4.6.6 New chemicals *
  • 4.7 Chemical risks in urban cities in developing countries *
  • 4.7.1 Fluoride *
  • 4.7.1.1 Brazil *
  • 4.7.1.2 Ethiopia *
  • 4.7.1.3 India *
  • 4.7.1.4 Kenya *
  • 4.7.1.5 Mexico *
  • 4.7.1.6 Saudi Arabia *
  • 4.7.1.7 South Africa *
  • 4.7.1.8 Turkey *
  • 4.7.1.9 United Republic of Tanzania *
  • 4.7.2 Arsenic (As) *
  • 4.7.2.1 Argentina *
  • 4.7.2.2 Bangladesh – West Bengal, India *
  • 4.7.2.3 Chile *
  • 4.7.2.4 Mexico *
  • 4.7.2.5 Taiwan *
  • 4.7.2.6 Thailand *
  • 4.7.2.7 Vietnam *
  • 4.7.3 Mercury (Hg) *
  • 4.7.3.1 Brazil *
  • 4.7.3.2 Philippines *
  • 4.7.3.3 South Africa *
  • 4.7.4 Trihalomethanes (THMs) *
  • 4.7.4.1 Greece *
  • 4.7.4.2 Malaysia *
  • 4.7.4.3 Mexico *
  • 4.7.4.4 Turkey *
  • 4.7.5 Pesticides *
  • 4.7.5.1 Brazil *
  • 4.7.5.2 Egypt *
  • 4.7.5.3 South Africa *
  • 4.8 Chemical risk management in urban water cycle *
  • 4.8.1 Chemical risks identification in urban water cycle *
  • 4.8.1.1 Drinking water *
  • 4.8.1.2 Other water-related chemical risks *
  • 4.8.2 Vulnerability and variability *
  • 4.8.3 Urban water policy *
  • 4.9 References *

5 Risk Management on the urban water cycle. Climate change risks *

  • 5.1 Introduction *
  • 5.1.1 Global climate change *
  • 5.1.2 Global climate change and hydrological cycle *
  • 5.1.3 Mitigation of GHG emissions *
  • 5.2 Water in an urbanized world *
  • 5.2.1 Water scarcity *
  • 5.3 Impacts and risks *
  • 5.3.1 Water availability and glacial melt *
  • 5.3.2 Sea level rise and extreme events *
  • 5.3.3 Water quality *
  • 5.3.4 Changes in the past decades related to global climate change *
  • 5.3.5 Risks for urban settlements *
  • 5.4 Adaptation and integration of climate change into urban water resource management *
  • 5.4.1 Adaptation and sustainable development *
  • 5.4.2 Planning under uncertainties *
  • 5.4.3 Supply and demand options *
  • 5.4.4 Urban water management *
  • 5.4.5 Poverty and equity *
  • 5.4.6 International aid *
  • 5.5 Conclusions *
  • 5.6 References *

6 Water source and drinking water risk management *

  • 6.1 Introduction *
  • 6.2 Security, reliability and risk *
  • 6.3 Uncertainty, threats and effects *
  • 6.4 Prevention, mitigation and resolution *
  • 6.5 Scarcity and drought, an operational example *
  • 6.6 Conclusions and recommendations *
  • 6.6.1 Methodological considerations *
  • 6.6.2 Operational considerations *

7 Wastewater risks in the urban water cycle *

  • 7.1 Introduction *
  • 7.2 Pollutant sources *
  • 7.2.1 Point sources *
  • 7.2.1.1 Municipal wastewater *
  • 7.2.1.2 Industrial wastewater *
  • 7.2.1.3 Stormwater *
  • 7.2.2 Non-point pollutant sources *
  • 7.2.2.1 Urban infrastructure *
  • 7.2.2.2 Urban activities *
  • 7.2.2.3 Disposal practices *
  • 7.2.2.4 Other sources *
  • 7.3 Pollutants involved *
  • 7.3.1 Conventional parameters *
  • 7.3.2 Biological pollutants *
  • 7.3.3 Emerging pollutants *
  • 7.3.3.1 Content in water *
  • 7.3.3.2 Content in surface and groundwater *
  • 7.4 Management *
  • 7.4.1 Changing the concept of pollution sources *
  • 7.4.2 Gathering useful information *
  • 7.4.3 Monitoring campaigns *
  • 7.4.4 Water sources management *
  • 7.4.4.1 Groundwater *
  • 7.4.4.2 Surface water *
  • 7.4.5 Pollutant management *
  • 7.4.5.1 Biological pollutants *
  • 7.4.5.2 Chemical compounds *
  • 7.4.6 Urban infrastructure and urban activities *
  • 7.4.7 Climate change *
  • 7.4.8 Education and research *
  • 7.5 Treatment *
  • 7.5.1 Biological pollutants *
  • 7.5.2 Emerging pollutants *
  • 7.5.3 Criteria for selecting wastewater treatment processes *
  • 7.6 Wastewater disposal *
  • 7.6.1 Soil disposal *
  • 7.6.1.1 Soil disposal and aquifer storage *
  • 7.6.1.2 Soil disposal and agriculture *
  • 7.6.2 Disposal in water bodies *
  • 7.6.2.1 Eutrophication *
  • 7.6.2.2 Coupling wastewater disposal with water reuse *
  • 7.7 Conclusions *
  • 7.8 References *

8 Risks associated with biosolids reuse in agriculture *

  • 8.1 Introduction *
  • 8.2 Nutrient and agronomic value *
  • 8.3 Microbiological quality *
  • 8.4 Potentially toxic elements *
  • 8.5 Organic contaminants *
  • 8.6 Conclusions *
  • 8.7 References *

9 ‘Closing the Urban Water Cycle’ integrated approach towards water reuse in Windhoek, Namibia *

  • 9.1 Introduction *
  • 9.2 Water sources in Windhoek *
  • 9.2.1 Conventional water sources *
  • 9.3 Reuse options implemented in Windhoek *
  • 9.4 Future water supply augmentation to Windhoek *
  • 9.5 Various process modifications from 1968 to 1995 *
  • 9.6 Process design for the new Goreangab water reclamation plant *
  • 9.6.1 Summary *
  • 9.6.2 Raw water quality profile *
  • 9.6.3 Determination of treatment objectives *
  • 9.6.4 The multiple-barrier concept *
  • 9.6.5 Experiments and pilot studies to determine process design criteria *
  • 9.7 Selection of final process train *
  • 9.8 Operational experience to date *
  • 9.9 Water quality and monitoring *
  • 9.10 Quality concerns with the present process configuration *
  • 9.11 Cost considerations *
  • 9.12 Public acceptance of direct potable reuse *
  • 9.13 New research and development options *
  • 9.13.1 Process related refinements *
  • 9.13.2 Quality control *
  • 9.13.3 Health *
  • 9.14 Conclusion *
  • 9.15 References *

10 Reducing risk from wastewater use in urban farming – a case study of Accra, Ghana *

  • 10.1 Introduction *
  • 10.2 The case of Accra *
  • 10.2.1 Urban water use and wastewater management *
  • 10.2.2 Irrigated urban vegetable farming *
  • 10.2.3 Irrigation water quality *
  • 10.2.4 Quality of vegetables in urban markets in Accra *
  • 10.2.5 Numbers of consumers at risk *
  • 10.2.6 Risk assessment to farmers and consumers *
  • 10.3 Risk reduction measures *
  • 10.3.1 Explore alternative farmland, tenure security and safer water sources *
  • 10.3.2 Promote safer irrigation methods *
  • 10.3.3 Influence the choice of crops grown *
  • 10.3.4 Avoid post-harvest contamination *
  • 10.3.5 Assist post-harvest decontamination *
  • 10.3.6 Improve institutional coordination to develop integrated policies *
  • 10.4 Conclusions *
  • 10.5 References *

11 Drinking water – potential health effects caused by infiltration of pollutants from solid waste landfills *

  • 11.1 Introduction *
  • 11.2 Pollutants in landfill leachates *
  • 11.3 The exposure pathways and mechanisms *
  • 11.4 Cases *
  • 11.5 Conclusions *
  • 11.6 References *

12 Exploding sewers: the industrial use and abuse of municipal sewers, and reducing the risk – the experience of Louisville, Kentucky US *

  • 12.1 Introduction *
  • 12.2 The hexa-octa incident *
  • 12.3 The sewer explosions *
  • 12.4 Industrial waste and hazardous spills *
  • 12.5 About the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) *
  • 12.6 Reasons for doing permitting and pretreatment compliance programmes *
  • 12.7 Components of the permitting and pretreatment compliance programme *
  • 12.7.1 Commercial/industrial process plan review *
  • 12.7.2 Permits *
  • 12.7.3 Unusual discharge requests (UDR) *
  • 12.7.4 Industrial inspections *
  • 12.7.5 Sampling and monitoring *
  • 12.7.6 Compliance and enforcement *
  • 12.8 Chemical spill prevention and response – The hazardous materials incident response team *
  • 12.9 Sampling and monitoring to reduce risk – the collection system monitoring programme *
  • 12.9.1 Data management and computerization *
  • 12.10 Conclusions: need for strong local programmes to reduce risk *
  • 12.11 References *

13 Lessons learned: a response and recovery framework for post-disaster scenarios *

  • 13.1 Introduction *
  • 13.1.1 Background *
  • 13.1.2 Rationale *
  • 13.1.3 Objectives *
  • 13.1.4 Methodology *
  • 13.1.5 General principles *
  • 13.2 Response and recovery framework *
  • 13.2.1 General guidelines *
  • 13.2.2 Immediate aftermath (0–7 Days) *
  • 13.2.3 Short term (next 60 days) *
  • 13.2.4 Medium term (next 3–12 months) *
  • 13.3 Conclusion *
  • 13.4 References *

14 Managing urban water risks: Managing drought and climate change risks in Australia *

  • 14.1 Introduction *
  • 14.2 Managing drought risks *
  • 14.3 Adapting to climate change impacts *
  • 14.3.1 Climate change forecasts *
  • 14.3.2 Modelling of impacts *
  • 14.3.3 Water reforms and environmental flows *
  • 14.3.4 Climate change impacts *
  • 14.3.5 Adapting with water savings and water reuse *
  • 14.4 Adaptation case study *
  • 14.4.1 The Sydney water system *
  • 14.4.2 The Sydney Metropolitan Water Plan 2006 *
  • 14.4.3 Managing drought risks *
  • 14.4.4 Enhanced stochastic analyses *
  • 14.4.5 Economic analyses *
  • 14.4.6 Another example *
  • 14.5 Additional drought security issues *
  • 14.5.1 Drought severity *
  • 14.5.2 Hindcasting *
  • 14.5.3 Starting storage *
  • 14.5.4 Demand variability *
  • 14.5.5 Demand hardening *
  • 14.5.6 Building diverse water portfolios *
  • 14.6 Conclusions *
  • 14.7 References *

About the Series

Urban Water Series

Volumes 1-9, Series Editors: Cedo Maksimovic (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK) and Sarantuyaa Zandaryaa (Division of Water Sciences, International Hydrological Programme (IHP) UNESCO, Paris, France).
Volumes 10-onwards, Series Editor: Cedo Maksimovic (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK).

This book series covers integrated approaches to sustainable urban water management and focuses on the role of water in cities and the effects of urbanization on the hydrological cycle and water resources. The series is intended not only for water and environmental specialists, including urban water management practitioners, policy-makers and educators, but also for other professionals such as urban planners, water economists and researchers dealing with urban water issues throughout the world. Volumes 1-9 (series editors Cedo Maksimovic and Sarantuyaa Zandaryaa) are available in hardback and paperback, are co-published by Taylor & Francis and UNESCO Publishing and present the major outcomes of UNESCO’s Sixth International Hydrological Programme (IHP VI, 2002-2007). Volumes 10 and onwards (series editor Cedo Maksimovic) are available in hardback. The series complements the Urban Water Journal, likewise published by Taylor & Francis (www.tandfonline.com/nurw).

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply