3rd Edition

Urban Wildlife Management

By Clark E. Adams Copyright 2016
    618 Pages 214 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    617 Pages 214 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Winner of the 2018 TWS Wildlife Publication Awards in the authored book category

    Urban development is one of the leading worldwide threats to conserving biodiversity. In the near future, wildlife management in urban landscapes will be a prominent issue for wildlife professionals. This new edition of Urban Wildlife Management continues the work of its predecessors by providing a comprehensive examination of the issues that increase the need for urban wildlife management, exploring the changing dynamics of the field while giving historical perspectives and looking at current trends and future directions.

    The book examines a range of topics on human interactions with wildlife in urbanized environments. It focuses not only on ecological matters but also on political, economic, and societal issues that must be addressed for successful management planning. This edition features an entirely new section on urban wildlife species, including chapters on urban communities, herpetofauna, birds, ungulates, mammals, carnivores, and feral and introduced species.

    The third edition features

    • Five new chapters

    • 12 updated chapters

    • Four new case studies

    • Seven new appendices and species profiles

    • 90 new figures

    • A comprehensive analysis of terrestrial vertebrate locations by state and urban observations

    Each chapter opens with a set of key concepts which are then examined in the following discussions. Suggested learning experiences to enhance knowledge conclude each chapter. The species profiles cover not only data about the animal concerned but also detail significant current management issues related to the species.

    An updated and expanded teaching tool, Urban Wildlife Management, Third Edition identifies the challenges and opportunities facing wildlife in urban communities as well as factors that promote or threaten their presence. It gives both students and professionals a solid grounding in the required fundamental ecological principles for understanding the effects of human-made environments on wildlife.

    Introduction: A New Wildlife Management Paradigm
    A Snapshot of the Urban Wildlife Management Landscape
    Changing Wildlife Values
    The Need for a Comprehensive Treatment of Urban Wildlife Management
    Understanding and Meeting the Future Challenges of Wildlife Management
    Literature Review Limitations
    Nature in Human-Dominated Landscapes
    Chapter Activities
    Case Study I.1: Literature Review on Urban Deer Research
    Sidebar I.1: Wildlife Hotline Quiz
    Sidebar I.2: Job Description of an Urban Wildlife Biologist
    Appendix I.1: Answers to Wildlife Hotline Quiz


    Wildlife Management: Past and Present
    Key Concepts
    Brief History of Wildlife Management in North America
    Rise the American Conservation Movement
    Demographic Factors That Set the Stages for Urban Wildlife Management
    Separation of People and Nature
    Reconnecting People and Nature
    A New Kind of Wildlife
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous)
    Perspective Essay 1.1: Human–Wildlife Interactions in the 1950s
    Perspective Essay 1.2: Human–Wildlife Interactions in the 1970s

    Principal Components of Urban Wildlife Management
    Key Concepts
    Urban Habitats as a Dominant Focus of Wildlife Professionals
    Need for Wildlife Management in Urban Areas
    Traditional and Alternative Methods of Human–Wildlife Conflict Management
    Need for Public Education Programs about Urban Wildlife, Management, and Habitats
    Alternative Curriculums to Train Urban Wildlife Biologists
    Wildlife Management Research Agenda
    Naturalist and Natural History
    Infrastructure for Urban Wildlife Management Is Missing
    Chapter Activities
    Case Study 2.1: Neighborhood Moose Killed by Kindness
    Perspective Essay 2.1: The Texas Master Naturalist Program
    Species Profile: Bobcat (Lynx rufus)
    Appendix 2.1: Numbers of Amphibian, Reptile, Bird, and Mammalian Species by State
    Appendix 2.2: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals Reported as Intakes at 17 Animal Rehabilitation Centers Throughout the United States


    Ecological Principles in an Urban Context
    Key Concepts
    Urban Context
    Ecological Principles
    Ecosystem Structure
    Food Chains and Webs
    Symbiotic Relationships
    Biotic Communities
    Ecosystem Function
    Ecosystem Services
    Ecology of Urban Ecosystems
    Even a Peanut Butter Sandwich Has Profound Environmental Impacts
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

    Urban Soils
    Key Concepts
    Soil Formation
    Soil Structure
    Soil Horizons
    Soil Functions
    Soil Biota and Their Functions
    Impacts of Urbanization on Soil Structure and Function
    Taking Better Care of Urban Soil
    Urban Wildlife Management Implications
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Moles (Talpidae sp.)
    Perspective Essay 4.1: Darwin’s Earthworms
    Perspective Essay 4.2: Home Composting on a Small Scale

    Urban Aquatic Systems
    Key Concepts
    Flow of Water through an Urban Community
    Water Cycle: Nature’s Filter
    Caring for the Water Cycle
    Riparian Corridors: Streams and Rivers
    Urban Stream Syndrome
    Aquatic Food Chain
    Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
    Fish as Indicator Species
    Invasive and Introduced Species
    Restoration of Riparian Habitats
    Urban Wetlands
    Urban (Community) Fisheries Programs
    Chapter Activities
    Case Study 5.1: Controlling Exotic Flora with Exotic Fauna
    Species Profile: American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

    Population Dynamics
    Key Concepts
    Factors Affecting Population Densities
    How Populations Grow
    Population Growth Rate Patterns
    Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Population Dynamics
    Effects of Supplemental Feeding on Population Dynamics
    Effects of Animal Damage Control Activities on Population Dynamics
    Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Wildlife Population Dynamics
    Chapter Activity
    Species Profile: Tree Squirrels (Sciurus spp.)


    Urban Green Spaces
    Key Concepts
    Green Spaces
    Remnant Habitat Patches
    Successional Habitat Patches
    Managed Habitat Patches
    Chapter Activities
    Perspective Essay 7.1: Birds in Texas Cemeteries
    Perspective Essay 7.2: For the Love of Lawns
    Species Profile: Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Urban Gray Spaces
    Key Concepts
    Buildings, Windows, and Towers
    Roads and Highways
    Bridges, Birds, and Bats
    Landfills, Dumpsters, and Garbage Cans
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Mexican Free-Tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)


    Urban Herpetofauna (Amphibians and Reptiles)
    Key Concepts
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile 9.1: Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)
    Species Profile 9.2: Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis)
    Appendix 9.1: State Totals of Amphibians and Reptiles and Numbers of Each Class Observed in Urban Communities

    Urban Birds
    Key Concepts
    Class Aves Taxonomy of Living Orders in the United States
    Distinguishing Characteristics and Life Cycle
    Management for Birds in Urban Habitats
    National Distribution by States
    Urban Observations
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Common Poorwill (Chordeiles minor)
    Appendix 10.1: State Totals of Birds and Numbers of Each Species Observed in Urban Communities Somewhere in the United States

    Urban Mammals
    Key Concepts
    Class Mammalia Taxonomy
    Distinguishing Characteristics and Life Cycle
    Management for Mammals in Urban Habitats
    National Distribution by States
    Urban Observations
    Urban Raccoons (Procyon lotor)
    Urban Coyotes (Canis latrans)
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)
    Appendix 11.1: State Totals of Mammals and Numbers of Each Species Observed in Urban Communities Somewhere in the United States

    Urban Threatened, Endangered, and Extirpated Species
    Key Concepts
    Diversity of T/E Species
    Chapter Activities

    Urban Introduced and Invasive Species
    Key Concepts
    Introduced Species
    Invasive and Feral Species Introductions
    Case Studies of Invasive Species
    Case Studies of Feral Species
    Invasive Species Management Plans
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus)

    Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
    Key Concepts
    Factors That Contributed to Geese and Deer Abundance in Urban America
    Extent of the Problem: A National Assessment
    Distribution of Resident Canada Geese and White-Tailed Deer in the Continental United States
    Human Response to Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
    Ecological Impacts of Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer
    Health and Safety Issues
    Management Strategies for Overabundant Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer Populations
    Chapter Activity
    Case Study 14.1: A Tale of Two Cities


    Human Dimensions of Urban Wildlife Management
    Key Concepts
    The "People Factor"
    Conducting Human Dimensions Research
    Surveying Wildlife Recreationists
    Role of Human Dimensions in Urban Wildlife Management
    Working with Urban Stakeholders
    Chapter Activities
    Perspective Essay 15.1: Urbanites’ Fear of the Natural World around Them
    Case Study 15.1: Stakeholders Disagree on Best Approach for Managing Fallow Deer

    Legal Aspects of Urban Wildlife Management
    Key Concepts
    Wildlife Law 101
    Federal Laws
    State Laws
    County and Municipal Laws
    Local Ordinances
    Who’s in Charge Here?
    Chapter Activities
    Sidebar 16.1: New Berlin vs. Hagar
    Sidebar 16.2: Urban Wildlife Damage Principles
    Species Profile: Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

    Zoonoses and Management Considerations
    Key Concepts
    What Are Zoonoses?
    Wildlife and Weaponization of Zoonotic Diseases
    Parasitic Diseases
    Mycotic Diseases
    Bacterial Diseases
    Viral Diseases
    Prion Diseases
    Chapter Activities
    Species Profile: American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

    Appendix: Lists of Terrestrial Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals by States and Those Observed in Urbanized Communities in the United States
    Sources of Information on National, State, and Urban Lists of Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals



    Clark E. Adams is an emeritus professor in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences (WFSC) at Texas A&M University in College Station. He earned his PhD in zoology from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and completed a 51-year teaching and research career on August 31, 2015. He chaired the Conservation Education Committee for The Wildlife Society (TWS), edited the newsletter for the Human Dimensions of Wildlife Study Group, was a member of the Urban Wildlife Management Working Group, and has chaired many committees for the Texas Chapter of TWS. He is a former president of the Texas Chapter of TWS and as well as the Southwest Section of TWS. Since 1981, he and his students have conducted and published many national, regional, and statewide studies on the public’s activities, attitudes, expectations, and knowledge concerning wildlife. He developed the degree option in urban wildlife and fisheries management for the WFSC and developed and taught the senior-level urban wildlife management course. He received the 2015 Outstanding Achievement in Urban Wildlife Conservation award from the TWS Urban Wildlife Working Group. He is also the coauthor of Texas Rattlesnake Roundups.

    As urban areas expand into surrounding natural habitat, there are inevitably more interactions between humans and wildlife. In this third edition, Adams (emer., wildlife and fisheries sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station) updates a work that filled a void no comprehensive treatment of the subject had previously existed. Significant enhancements to previous editions (CH, Oct'06, 44-0909) include five new chapters, four case studies, seven appendixes/species profiles, and 90 figures. Additional research and data mining contribute a significant amount of new information to this edition. New chapters highlight special management considerations for various types of urban vertebrates. A short profile of an urban species follows each chapter. Though examples and case studies are heavily focused on the United States, the general principles can apply to urban wildlife in any area of the world. Designed to serve as a textbook, this volume synthesizes current information and is the standard text on this subject. It can also serve as a general resource for those interested in this topic. More than 1,000 references fill 41 pages. A similar book, Urban Wildlife Conservation (CH, Jul'15, 52-5883) complements this title, but Adams's work serves as a better introduction to the subject.

    --C. E. Buckley, Illinois State University

    Summing Up: Essential. All readers.CHOICE