Choosing the optimal management option requires environmental risk managers and decision makers to evaluate diverse, and not always congruent, needs and interests of multiple stakeholders. Understanding the trade-offs of different options as well as their legal, economic, scientific, and technological implications is critical to performing accurate
Approaching the Problem of Ecological Valuation. Socio-Cultural Valuation of Ecological Resources. Integrating Economics and Ecological Assessment. Valuation Methods. Complexity in Ecological Systems. Organizing and Integrating the Valuation Process. Synthesis, Recommendations, and Conclusions. CASE STUDIES: National Park Establishment, Philippines. Large PCB-Contaminated River under Superfund: Interface Between Remediation and Restoration. Extractive Development and the Valuation of Biodiversity and Community Needs in Madagascar. 1991 Gulf War Oil Spill: Long-term Impacts on Shoreline Habitats. Example of Valuing the Ecological Benefits from the Clean Air Act and 1990 Amendments. The CALFED Bay-Delta Program: A Case Study in Intertwined Ecological and Environmental Resource Issues.