Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures

1st Edition

By Reinhard Radermacher, Yunho Hwang

CRC Press

328 pages | 190 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2005-06-23
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Amidst tightening requirements for eliminating CFC’s, HCFC’s, halons, and HFC’s from use in air conditioning and heat pumps, the search began for replacements that are environmentally benign, non-flammable, and similar to the banned refrigerants in system-level behavior. Refrigerant mixtures are increasingly used as working fluids because they demonstrate desirable thermodynamic, feasibility, and safety characteristics.

Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures provides the first comprehensive, single-source treatment of working fluid mixtures and their applications in vapor compression systems. The authors explain in detail the thermodynamics of refrigerant mixtures, which is vastly more complex than that of individual refrigerants, as well as the fundamentals of various refrigeration cycles and methods for improving their efficiency. They also include important discussions on heat transfer and pressure drop correlations, experimental performance measurements and examples of using refrigerants and their mixtures, and critical operational issues such as control issues, refrigerant mixing, and mass fraction shifts.

Assembling reviews of the scattered literature on the subject and reflecting two decades of research by the authors, Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures prepares you to design and implement systems that take the best advantage of fluid mixtures, confronting the challenges and grasping the opportunities that they present.

Table of Contents


Heat Pumping

Overview of Current Products

History of Working Fluids

Requirements for Working Fluids

Background of Environmental Concerns


Properties of Working Fluids

Thermodynamic Diagrams of Pure and Mixed Refrigerants

Analytical Treatment of Thermodynamic Properties

Ternary and Multicomponent Mixtures


Vapor Compression Cycle Fundamentals

The Carnot Cycle

Heat Pumps in the Context of Energy Conversion

The Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle

Differences between the Carnot Cycle and Vapor Compression Cycle

Realistic Vapor Compression Cycles

Lorenz Cycle

Vapor Compression Cycle with Zeotropic Mixtures in Thermodynamic Diagrams

The Matching of Temperature Glides

Methods for Comparing the Performance of Pure and Mixed Refrigerants

Simulation of the Vapor Compression Cycle


Methods for Improving the Cycle Efficiency

Measures of Incremental Efficiency Improvement

The Suction Line to Liquid Line Heat Exchanger

The Economizer

The Expander

The Three-Path Evaporator


Experimental Performance Measurements

Laboratory Breadboard Tests

Actual System Tests Experience


Refrigerant Mixtures in Refrigeration Applications

Single Evaporator Refrigeration Cycle

Dual Evaporator Refrigeration Cycle

Lorenz-Meutzner Cycle

Modified Lorenz-Meutzner Cycle Refrigerator


Refrigerant Mixtures in Heat Pump Applications

Capacity Control

R22 Replacement


Heat Transfer of Refrigerant Mixtures

Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients

Correlations for Flow Boiling Heat Transfer

Pressure Drop During Evaporation

Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients

Correlations for Flow Condensation Heat Transfer

Pressure Drop during Condensation


Operational Issues


Refrigerant Recovery

Cycle Flushing

Refrigerant Mixing

Refrigerant Mass Fraction Measurement

Evacuating a System

Refrigerant Charge

Leak Checking

Mass Fraction Shifts



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