1st Edition

Vernacular and Earthen Architecture: Conservation and Sustainability Proceedings of SosTierra 2017 (Valencia, Spain, 14-16 September 2017)

    Vernacular architecture in general and earthen architecture in particular, with their rich variety of forms worldwide, are custodians of the material culture and identity of the peoples who built them. In addition, they are widely recognized as ancestral examples of sustainability in all their variants and interpretations, and the architecture of the present ought to learn from these when designing the sustainable architecture of the future. The conservation of these architectures – seemingly simple yet full of wisdom – is to be undertaken now given their intrinsic value and their status as genuine examples of sustainability to be learnt from and interpreted in contemporary architecture.

    Vernacular and earthen architecture: Conservation and Sustainability will be a valuable source of information for academics and professionals in the fields of Environmental Science, Civil Engineering, Construction and Building Engineering and Architecture.

    Plenary lectures

    Markers of earthen construction modern revival
    H. Guillaud

    The geography of earth building
    M. Lewis

    Vernacular earthen architecture

    A sustainable repair process for heritage buildings in historic Jeddah
    A.A. Adas & M.Y. Alaidaroos

    Santal mud dwellings: Materials, construction and space typology
    I. Ahmed

    The study and analysis of the adaptation of earthen constructions in Hadhramaut (Yemen)
    A.A. Alaidarous

    Vernacular houses of Stratonikeia: Architectural typology, materials and techniques
    O.B. Avsar & U.D. Genc

    Ksar Taghit: Earthen architecture between authenticity and changes
    T. Bachir Cherif & M. Aiche

    Supplemented rammed earth in the northwestern regions of Valencia
    L. Balaguer Garzón, L. García-Soriano & L. Villacampa Crespo

    Earth construction in prehistoric settlements of southern Portugal
    P. Bruno

    Vernacular construction techniques and earth employ in Arg-e-Bam (Iran)
    C. Cacciavillani, S. Rinaldi & M. Severini

    Vernacular heritage in Mendoza (Cuyo region, Argentina)
    S.A. Cirvini

    Comparative evolution of vernacular mudbrick houses in the Nile Delta and Qurna (Luxor)
    M. Correas Amador & C. Simpson

    Tapiabrick: A digital platform on brick-supplemented rammed earth walls
    V. Cristini & J.R. Ruiz Checa

    The ancient caves from El Alguacilejo. Vernacular habitat and landscape of Gran Canaria, Spain
    I. Díaz-Ramos & J. Manzano-Cabrera

    Interpretation of sustainable desert architecture in Ghadames city, Libya
    A. Eltrapolsi & H. Altan

    Thermal performance and comfort of vernacular earthen buildings in Egypt and Portugal
    J. Fernandes, M. Dabaieh, R. Mateus, S.M. Silva, L. Bragança & H. Gervásio

    Earthen construction in Ourense, Galicia (Spain)
    A. Fernández Palicio

    Earthen vernacular architecture in Cuneo’s territories (Piedmont, Italy)
    F. Fratini, S. Rescic, M. Mattone & L. Rovero

    Vernacular earthen architecture and its restoration in the region of La Manchuela in Albacete (Spain)
    L. García-Soriano

    Earthen elements in the Iberian Peninsula: Cataloging and preliminary study
    L. García-Soriano, L. Villacampa Crespo & F.J. Gómez-Patrocinio

    Vernacular architecture in El Khorbat, Morocco. Evolution of the Igrems
    T. Gil Piqueras, P. Rodríguez-Navarro & A. Pérez Vila

    Examination of structural decay processes in adobe vernacular architecture in Spain
    F.J. Gómez-Patrocinio, L. García-Soriano & L. Balaguer Garzón

    Mid-century earthen architecture in Aotearoa New Zealand—a new vernacular?
    M. Hall

    Stone, clay and turf in architectural construction
    B. Juvanec

    Transforming Kasena houses and indigenous building technology in Burkina Faso
    H. Kobayashi, T. Shimizu, M. Ito & S. Nakao

    Earth and gypsum: From theory to practice in Spanish vernacular architecture
    V. La Spina

    Earthen roofs in the region of Murcia, Spain: La Azohía
    F.J. López Martínez & V. La Spina

    Material and typological characterization of the tighremt n’Aït Makhat (Morocco)
    J.M. López-Osorio, S. Batani Sembak & L. Martínez Bernal

    Mud architecture: Sustaining communities in cold desert regions of Northern India
    A.K. Meel & G. Nanda

    Earthen heritage in the USA: Approximation to constructive techniques
    C. Mileto & F. Vegas López-Manzanares

    SOSTierra Project. Initial results
    C. Mileto, F. Vegas López-Manzanares, L. García-Soriano & V. Cristini

    A method of cataloguing for the earthen architectural heritage in Santo Domingo neighborhood in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico
    A. Parra Zebadúa & M. Genís Vinyals

    Study and appreciation of earthen architecture in Valencia’s southern farmland
    A. Pérez Vila

    Mestizo and hybrid typologies. Vernacular rural housing in Colombia
    Y. Pulgarín

    Mexico’s central area earthen architecture. Rammed earth construction: Use and technique
    D. Romero Olguín

    Domestic wineries in the Urz-Vidriales countryside (Spain)
    M. Ruiz-Bedia & A. Herrera Peral

    Scottish earth building materials
    M. Saez-Martinez & A. Leslie

    Thinking about historic resources: A proposed guidance document
    I.R. Stiegler, R. McManus, M. Achenza, M. al-Aidaroos, M. Beas, J. Bell, L. Cooke, M. Costi de Castrillo, A. Crosby, B. Esquivel, J. Hurd, B. Işik, P. Jerome, M. Lambert, T. Leiermann, C. Mileto, G. Shemdin, J. Vargas & F. Vegas

    Historic cob structures in Moravia
    Z. Syrová & J. Syrový

    A study of pit houses with soil-covered roofs in a humid climate in Japan
    T. Tsukidate

    Traditional earthen architecture in Aragon, Spain
    L. Villacampa Crespo, J.M. Sanz Zaragoza & L. García-Soriano

    The use of natural materials and ancient building techniques: The case for rammed earth construction
    E.L. Wagner

    Wind and dwellings in the villages of Rincón de Ademuz, Valencia (Spain)
    W. Ji

    Rehabilitation of vernacular earthen architecture

    Thermal insulation for a sustainable rehabilitation of traditional buildings
    M. Achenza

    Thermal assessment of the behavior of retrofitted rammed earth in central Catalonia
    G. Barbeta, M.M. Pareta, M.A. Chamorro & M. Sabata

    Using machine-dismantled cotton seed hulls in the making of light earth blocks
    A. González & S. Cabrera

    The systemic approach in the intervention on earthen architecture
    J.L. González Moreno-Navarro, M. Genís Vinyals, B. Onecha Pérez & A. Casals Balagué

    Kasbah Taourirt: Conserving earthen heritage in Morocco
    B. Marcus, C. Cancino & M. Boussalh

    Consumption study and energy optimization of a typical Valencian house
    A. Martínez, R. Royo & S. Tormo

    Maps, actors & local policies around earth buildings in Auvergne Rhône-Alpes
    G. Paccoud, M. Chamodot, L. Génis, F. Gutiérrez, E. Mille, B. Rakotomamonjy, J. Avons-Bariot & D. Studer

    Rammed earth buildings to meet Italian thermal regulation: Monitoring and sample tests
    R. Pennacchio & G. Piccablotto

    A pilot project, a tool for conserving the historic city of Cuenca, Ecuador
    B. Rakotomamonjy, E. Sevillano Gutiérrez & E. Carnevale

    Vernacular change in Brazil southeast region
    M.A.P. Rezende, S.L.A. Braga, J.L.R. Vale & M.V.S. Peixoto

    Investigating the preservation of vernacular earthen buildings of Louroujina (Akincilar) in North Cyprus
    R. Sabri & H. Altan

    Campiña Segoviana’s earthen heritage and conservation clues from Isère
    E. Sevillano Gutiérrez & E. Camarasaltas Pérez

    Transformation in the Kasena’s large earthen compound houses in Burkina Faso
    T. Shimizu, S. Nakao, H. Kobayashi & M. Ito

    Contemporary earthen architecture

    Hassan Fathy’s humane considerations in design and the significance of New Gourna
    A.G. Abdel Tawab

    A temporary pavilion as a way to experiment with mud. The case of Roly Poly
    L. Balboa Quesada & A.J. Jiménez Quesada

    A home with roots. Construction process of an adobe contemporanean house
    P. Bel-Anzué

    A minus carbon eco-cycle earthen refugee shelter: A feasibility study
    M. Dabaieh

    Net Zero Energy straw bale & rammed earth design; cold climate case study
    R. Davidson

    Natural clay plasters: Checking regulations to characterization tests
    A. González-Serrano, R. Rodríguez-García, L. Molina & M. Ponce

    Terra nova—earthen architecture and modernity
    F.M. Lorusso & S. Mecca

    The school of Baasneere, the process of international cooperation
    J.V. Maravilla Moreno & X. Ferragud Adam

    CEB Factory for seismic resistant earthen architecture design in Nepal
    F. Masso Ros

    CEB production in social insertion workshops. An experience in Algemesí (Spain)
    J. Nácher Martínez, J.V. Maravilla Moreno, X. Ferragud Adam & F.J. Gómez-Patrocinio

    A case-study project of reinterpretation of local traditional techniques
    J.R. Ruiz Checa & V. Cristini

    Restoration of monumental earthen architecture

    Restoration method on the southern wall of the Medieval access road to the Generalife
    I. Bestué Cardiel, F.J. López Martínez & J.C. Molina Gaitán

    The keep of the Alcázar of Carmona (Sevilla, Spain). Materials for the restoration of rammed earth walls
    F.J. Blasco-López, J. Canivell, A. Graciani, J.J. Martín-del-Río & F.J. Alejandre

    Rammed earth and formworks in Medieval fortifications in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
    F.J. Castilla, D. Gallego, J. Molero, C. Peña & D. Sanz

    The Islamic wall of Mula (Spain): 3D reconstruction, restoration and musealization
    P.E. Collado Espejo, J. García León, V. La Spina & J. Fernández Del Toro

    The use of lime, an example of good practices in the conservation of cultural heritage built on earth
    R. Fernández Baca Casares, M. García de Casasola Gómez, E. Ontiveros Ortega, B. Castellano Bravo & P. Santana Martín

    Earth in historical fortifications. Pedro de Lucuze’s method
    L. Gimeno Romero, L. Cortés Meseguer & S. Tormo Esteve

    PREFORTI project: The preventive conservation of historic rammed-earth
    M.L. Gutiérrez-Carrillo, I. Bestué Cardiel, J.C. Molina Gaitán & J.A. Martínez López

    3D modelling for the interpretation of watchtowers between capes of San Antonio and La Nao (Alicante, Spain)
    F. Juan-Vidal & P. Rodríguez-Navarro

    Earthen architecture, appreciation and landscape: The oasis of Ferkla (Morocco)
    F. Juan-Vidal & T. Gil Piqueras

    New technology for analysis of the chapel of Santa María, Coahuila, Mexico
    R. López de Juambelz, A.S. Rodríguez Cepeda & M.Á. Sorroche Cuerva

    Implementing a GIS for cataloguing Medieval defensive earth architecture
    E. Molero, M.L. Gutiérrez-Carrillo & J. Garrido

    The defense of the technique of rammed earth made by Giovanni Battista Antonelli in 1560
    P. Rodríguez-Navarro

    An approach to earthen fortifications in villages of La Serranía (Valencia, Spain)
    F. Roger

    The first rammed earth wall in America. Earth in 16th-century Dominican architecture
    M.Á. Sorroche Cuerva

    The preservation of the Nubian earthen architecture
    G. Torra i Campos, I. García Alonso, M. Cressent & O. Hasabelrasoul Ahmed

    Constructive analysis of the rammed earth walls in the Petrés Castle (Valencia, Spain)
    F. Vegas López-Manzanares, C. Mileto, F.J. Gómez-Patrocinio & A. Pérez Vila

    Seismic Retrofitting Project: On-site retrofitting techniques workshops
    K.H. Wong, C. Cancino, J.C. Menendez & L. Villacorta Santamato

    Lessons from vernacular heritage for a sustainable contemporary architecture

    Conservation of vernacular architecture, the case of the old town of Nablus/Palestine
    E.M. Amad

    The habitat of the nomadic shepherds in the Jbel Saghro, Morocco
    J. Asencio Juncal, G. Cudeiro Baiguera, P. Iranzo Navas, M.A. Porras Díaz & S. Pino Martín

    Vernacular nomadic architecture in the Mgoun Valley, High Atlas (Morocco)
    J. Asencio Juncal, J. Ingelmo Moyano & J. Ramírez Bandera

    Casa de los Cinteros: Constructive analysis of a traditional house in northern Valencia
    L. Balaguer Garzón & S. Traver

    S. Jerónimo de Cotalba. Strategies for the preservation of the monastic complex
    J.M. Barrera Puigdollers & N. Matarredona Desantes

    Life cycle assessment for the earthen heritage center (Pabillonis, Sardinia)
    A. Bonoli, S. Rizzo, M. Tomasi & A. Vado

    The Tiburtino II district in Rome (Italy). Proposals for preserving the modern architecture
    C. Careccia, T. De Gennaro & M.G. Rizzi

    Vernacular tradition and modernity. New scenarios in urban living
    R. Chimirri

    Sustainable proposal for the conservation of Castillejo of Monteagudo (Murcia, Spain)
    P.E. Collado Espejo & M.J. Serrano Latorre

    Perceptions of earth in the age of global architecture
    J. Dahmen

    Is it useless rubble or recyclable building material?
    B. del Cueto

    Understanding the vernacular heritage to design sustainable habitats in Asni, Morocco
    L. Dipasquale & D. Giorgi

    A survey of Danish earthen heritage for sustainable building
    B.T. Eybye & I. Vestergaard

    Lessons of sustainability from the survey of the Valencian barraca
    Y. Hernández Navarro & P. de Dato

    Restoration of the church of the Immaculate Conception in El Llano, Alajuela, Costa Rica
    I. Hernández Salazar

    When the neo-vernacular architecture inspires the contemporary conception
    S. Kersenna & S. Chaouche

    Characteristics of earthen architecture in Ağlasun
    V.B. Kurtulus, E.Ç. Asrav, N. Şahin Güçhan & G. Bilgin Altınöz

    The painted facades and the urban landscape of Bisceglie, Italy. Notes of history and restoration
    A. La Notte

    Set of nine cave houses in La Algueña, Alicante (Spain). Renewal proposal
    A. Martínez Antón, G. López Patiño, V. Blanca Giménez & F. Aranda Navarro

    The influence of rice cultivation in the architecture of Sueca’s village (Valencia, Spain)
    C. Masó Vendrell

    In situ monitoring and characterisation of earthen envelopes: A review
    M.A. Mellado Mascaraque, F.J. Castilla Pascual, I. Oteiza & F. Martín-Consuegra

    Study of the situation of traditional constructive techniques and materials in Spain
    C. Mileto, F. Vegas López-Manzanares, V. Cristini & M.S. García Sáez

    Vernacular housing and transformations at the Cordillera de Sama (Bolivia)
    F. Moreno, C. Pérez de Guzmán & S. Santiago

    Built heritage as catalysts of environmental sustainability: A pragmatic paradigm for Anthropocene
    A.P. Olukoya Obafemi

    Adobe vernacular heritage in Mexicali, Mexico
    D. Olvera, L. Mendoza & L. Guerrero

    Balconies in traditional urban architecture through typology and solar radiation
    P. Privitera

    The Chilean adobe as a seismic vernacular technology, the study of the “Norte Chico” area
    A. Rivera Vidal

    Tracking down constructive techniques: Farmhouses preliminary studies
    F. Romero Iglesias, M. Martínez Lledó & V. Cristini

    Water-related built heritage in Campania, Italy. Knowledge for conservation of a sustainable vernacular architecture
    V. Russo, S. Pollone, G. Ceniccola & L. Romano

    From vernacular to contemporary: Kilwa (Tanzania) and Albreda (The Gambia) tourist information centres
    N. Sánchez Muñoz & S. Moriset

    Passive design principles in vernacular architecture of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
    A.B. Serrano Lanzarote, M. Navarro Escudero, L. Ramírez Pareja & C. Mateo Cecilia

    Local pre-industrial communities in Tuscany and the exploitation of water
    D. Ulivieri

    Contemporary earthen architecture in the northern temperate climate
    I. Vestergaard & B.T. Eybye

    Sustainability of rammed earth building tradition in Tepeyahualco, Mexico
    M.A. Vizcarra & L.F. Guerrero

    Structural analysis of vernacular architecture

    Structural assessment of earthen walls using damage tests and models
    A. Alonso Durá, A. Martínez Boquera & F.J. Gómez-Patrocinio

    Planning for acceptable contemporary earth construction in South Africa
    G. Bosman

    Main church of the Cartuja de Vall de Christ, Altura (Spain). Analysis of the interventions
    A. Carballal García

    Thermal orthophotos and vernacular architecture: Surveying half-timber walls in Béjar, Spain
    M. Diodato, S. Tormo Esteve & L. Balaguer Garzón

    The influence of ambient conditions into rammed earth compressive strength
    B. González-Sánchez, J.R. Rosell Amigó & A. Navarro Ezquerra

    Acoustic test on adobe and rammed earth walls
    P. Guillén Marzal

    Experimental study of adobe walls with geogrid reinforced mud plaster
    S. Invernizzi, M. Mattone, P. Vachey & M. Gentile

    A preliminary study of CIPS as a consolidant for earthen cultural materials
    I. Loo, C. Kyi, S. Collis, A. Jamieson & G. Price

    Low-cost adobe structures with bamboo additives and bamboo frames. Strength tests
    M. Paradiso, F. Bizzeti, E. Perria, A. Farigu & O. Lotti

    Experimental analysis of compressive mechanical behavior of adobe masonry
    J.D. Rodríguez Mariscal & M. Solís Muñiz

    Stabilisation of earthen surfaces using carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)
    J. Romero & G. Barbeta

    Advanced study of the mechanical properties of compressed earth block
    G. Ruiz, X.X. Zhang, L. Garijo, I. Cañas & W.A. Fouad

    Seismic analysis of Portuguese adobe buildings
    L. Sarchi, R. Monteiro & H. Varum

    Improved 2nd order holder. Method for heat transfer calculation for walls
    L. Soto Francés, B. Serrano Lanzarote, L. Ortega Madrigal & J.M. Pinazo Ojer

    Schematic analysis of traditional Vietnamese houses under the influence of Han culture
    W.J. Wang


    Camilla Mileto is architect (IUAV, Venice, Italy) and professor at the Universitat Politècnica of València - UPV (Spain), where she teaches architectural conservation both in graduate and postgraduate courses. She is presently director of the Master of Architectural Conservation at the UPV. She has been guest lecturer in the universities of Venice, Milano, Firenze and Palermo (Italy), Cordoba (Argentina) and the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, USA). She is codirector of the journal Loggia and has extensively published on architectural heritage. She has received several international awards for her research, projects and built work.

    Fernando Vegas is architect (UPV, Valencia, Spain) and professor at the Universitat Politècnica of València (Spain), where he teaches architectural conservation and composition both in graduate and postgraduate courses. Together with Camilla Mileto, he coordinates de Unitwin UNESCO Chair for Earthen Architecture, Constructive Cultures and Sustainable Development in Spain. He has been guest lecturer in several international universities. He is codirector of the journal Loggia and has extensively published on architectural heritage. He has received several international awards for their research, projects and built work.

    Lidia García-Soriano is architect by ETSA -UPV (2010), Master in Conservation of Architectural Heritage (2013) and PhD in architecture from the UPV (2015). Currently, she is researcher at the Instituto de Restauración del Patrimonio in the Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain). Her activity has focused on the scientific field of architectural heritage and its conservation, especially in the earthen architectural heritage and rammed earth architecture in particular, with several publications in these matters.

    Valentina Cristini (PhD. Architect) is assistant professor at Faculty of Architecture of the Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain) where she has been working since 2005, starting as granted student researcher. She has been visiting professor in several European and Extra-European Universities and Institutions from the beginning of her career. Currently she teaches both in graduate and postgraduate courses (MSc. Pedagogy). She has extensively published papers and texts on architectural conservation and she has joined several studies, projects and interventions for the preservation of monuments and vernacular architecture as in Spain as abroad.