Cryopreservation methods have become well established as an increasingly important therapeutic strategy in assisted reproduction. Vitrification in Assisted Reproduction: A User's Manual and Trouble-shooting Guide addresses this cryopreservation technique from an academic and technical viewpoint, with specific reference to assisted reproduction in h
1a. Vitrification: an overview 1b. Basic biophysics and thermodynamics of vitrification 2. Disadvantages and benefits of vitrification 3. Development of vitrification solutions 4a. Vitrification in animal reproduction: vitrification of embryos using open pulled straws 4b. Vitrification in animal reproduction: vitrification of embryos using conventional straws with ethylene glycol-based solutions 5. Cryoprotectant-freevitrification of spermatozoa. 6. Potential developmental consequences of cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes and embryos 7a. Vitrification of oocytes: general considerations and the use of the Cryotop method 7b. Vitrification of oocytes: various procedures 7c. Vitrification of oocytes using gold grid and slush nitrogen 7d. Vitrifying and warming of oocytes using Cryotop 8. Vitrification of pronuclear embryos 9. Vitrification of day 2-3 human embryos 10a. Vitrification of human embryos in straws, hemi-straws, and high security vitrification straws 10b. Vitrification of blastocysts: using the Cryoloop 10c. Vitrification of blastocysts using the electron microscope grid 10d. Vitrifying and warming of human blastocysts using the Cryotop 11a Vitrification of ovarian tissue 11b. Vitrification of ovarian tissue: organ recovery systems 12. Vitrification of human embryonic stem cells.