Voices of Early Modern Japan
Contemporary Accounts of Daily Life during the Age of the Shoguns
Winner of the 2013 Franklin R. Buchanan Prize for Curricular Materials awarded by the Association for Asian Studies and the Committee for Teaching About Asia (CTA), Voices of Early Modern Japan offers an accessible and well-balanced view of an extraordinary period in Japanese history, ranging from the unification of the warring states under Tokugawa Ieyasu in the early seventeenth century through the overthrow of the shogunate just prior to the opening of Japan by the West in the mid-nineteenth century. Through a close examination of primary sources from "The Great Peace," this fascinating volume offers fresh insights into the Tokugawa era - its political institutions, rigid class hierarchy, artistic and material culture, religious life, and more. Sources from all levels of Japanese society, from government documents and household records to personal correspondence and diaries, are carefully translated and examined in light of the latest scholarship. Constantine Nomikos Vaporis ably demonstrates how historians use primary documents and what can be uncovered from the words of ordinary people who lived centuries earlier. With robust reader resources and comprehensive coverage, Voices of Early Modern Japan is the perfect addition for students and interested readers seeking a fuller understanding of the Tokugawa period.
Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgments Introduction: The Shogun's Japan Evaluating and Interpreting Primary Documents Timeline of Japanese History from the Mid-Sixteenth Century through the Tokugawa Period, 1543--1868 I. THE DOMESTIC SPHERE 1. Getting Married: "Agreement Regarding a Dowry" (1815) 2. Obtaining a Divorce: An Appeal for Assistance (1850) and Letters of Divorce (1857, Undated) 3. The Consequences of Adultery: "The Eavesdropper Whose Ears Were Burned" (1686) 4. A Woman's Place: Onna Daigaku (The Greater Learning for Women, 1716) and Tadano Makuzu's Hitori Kangae(Solitary Thoughts, 1818) II. MATERIAL LIFE 5. Fashion and Sumptuary Legislation: Ihara Saikaku's The Japanese Family Storehouse (Nippon eitai gura, 1688); List of Clothing Prohibitions for Edo Townsmen (1719) 6. Samurai Dress and Grooming Standards: Prohibitions of 1615 and 1645 7. Lunisolar Calendar: Calendar for Seventh Year of Kaei (1854): Samurai in Armor 8. Japanese Foodways and Diet: The Accounts of Joao Rodrigues (1620--21), Yamakawa Kikue (1943), and Terakada Seiken (1832--36) 9. The Communal Bath: Shikitei Sanba's "The Women's Bath" (Ukiyoburo, 1810) 10. The Japanese Home: Carl Peter Thunberg's Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa Made During the Years 1770 & 1779 III. THE POLITICAL SPHERE 11. A Foreigner's View of the Battle of Osaka: Richard Cocks's Account of the Fall of Osaka Castle (1615) 12. Forging Political Order: "Laws for the Military Houses" (1615, 1635) 13. The Emperor and the Kyoto Aristocracy: "Regulations for the Imperial Palace and the Court Nobility" (1615) 14. Weapons Control in Japanese Society: Toyotomi Hideyoshi's "Sword Hunt" (1588) and "A Local Ordinance Regarding Swords" (1648) 15. Self-Governance in Villages: Goningumi (Five-Household Group) Laws (1640) 16. Regulating Townspeople in Two Cities: City Code from Kanazawa (1642) and Notice Board in Edo (1711) IV. FOREIGN RELATIONS 17. Regulating Foreign Relations: The "Closed Country Edicts" (sakoku rei, 1635, 1639) 18. Tokugawa Japan and Choson Korea: Record of a Journey Across the Sea (1719) 19. Leaving a Window Open to the Western World: Letter from a Nagasaki Official to the Dutch Governor-General (1642) 20. A Dutch Audience with the Shogun: Englebert Kaempfer's The History of Japan (1692) 21. Sizing Up the Foreign Threat: Aizawa Seishisai's Shinron (New Theses, 1825) V. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE 22. The Social Estates: Yamaga Soko on "The Way of the Samurai" (shido) 23. Trying to Get by on a Fixed Income: The Economic Problems Facing the Samurai, as Seen in a Letter from Tani Tannai to Saitaniya Hachirobei Naomasu (1751) and a Statement from Three Village Leaders to a Tokugawa Bannerman (1856) 24. The Samurai and Death: An Account of Junshi from Francois Caron's A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam (1636) 25. Private Vengeance Among the Samurai: A Letter from a Daimyo's Official in Echigo Province to an Official of the Tokugawa Shogunate and A Letter of Authorization (1828) 26. Rules of Merchant Houses: "The Testament of Shima Soshitsu" (1610) and "The Code of the Okaya House" (1836) 27. Dealing with Deviant Behavior: "A Letter of Apology" (1866) 28. Loans Among the Peasantry: "A Loan of Rice" (1702) 29. Unrest in the Countryside: A Song in Memory of a Protest (1786) and Petition to the Lord of Sendai from the Peasants of the Sanhei (1853) 30. Outcastes in Tokugawa Society: A Report from the Head of All Eta and Hinin (Undated) and an Inquiry by the Edo City Magistrates to the Tokugawa Council of State Regarding the Forfeiture of the Property of an Eta Who Assumed the Status of a Commoner (1799) VI. RECREATIONAL LIFE 31. Advice to Travelers in the Edo Period: Ryoko Yojinshu(Precautions for Travelers), 1810 32. Documentation for Travel: "Sekisho Transit Permit" (1706)and "A Passport" (1782) 33. Children and Their Amusements: The Japan Journal of Francis Hall (1859) 34. The Tea Ceremony: Chikamatsu Shigenori's Stories from a Tearoom Window (1804) 35. Archery and the Martial Arts: Hinatsu Shirozaemon Shigetaka's Honcho Bugei Shoden (A Short Tale of the Martial Arts in Our Country), 1714 36. Courtesans and the Sex Trade: Ihara Saikaku's The Life of an Amorous Man (Koshoku ichidai otoko, 1682)and Buyo Ishi's An Account of Worldly Affairs(Seji kenmonroku, 1816) 37. A Hero for the Masses: The Kabuki Play Sukeroku: Flower of Edo (1713) VII. RELIGION AND MORALITY 38. Preaching to the People: A Sermon by Hosoi Heishu (1783) 39. Anti-Christian Propaganda: Kirishitan monogatari (Tale of the Christians, 1639) 40. Controlling the Populace: Registers of Religious Affiliation (1804) 41. Religious Views of the Japanese: Sir Rutherford Alcock's The Capital of the Tycoon (1863) 42. The Teachings of Zen Buddhism: Suzuki Shosan's Roankyo (Donkey-Saddle Bridge, 1648) and Hakuin Ekaku's Sokko-roku Kaien-fusetsu (Talks Given Introductory to Zen Lectures on the Records of Sokko, 1740) Appendix 1: Biographical Sketches of Important Individuals Mentioned in Text Appendix 2: Glossary of Terms Mentioned in Text Bibliography Index