WTO Trade Remedies in International Law : Their Role and Place in a Fragmented International Legal System book cover
1st Edition

WTO Trade Remedies in International Law
Their Role and Place in a Fragmented International Legal System

ISBN 9780367588113
Published June 30, 2020 by Routledge
176 Pages

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Book Description

World Trade Organisation (WTO) trade remedies (antidumping, anti-subsidy and safeguard agreements) are instruments used by WTO members to counter the economic injury caused by dumping, subsidies and the sudden and unforeseen increased imports. They are exceptions to the WTO principle of free trade and to the prohibition for States to react unilaterally to protect their own rights and interests, and as a result they have been accused by some as being the new tools of protectionism.

This book analyses of the role and principles of WTO trade remedies in international law. In particular, it focuses on their aims, their structure, and their position within the WTO and more in general, the international legal system. The book considers trade remedies in light of fragmentation theories of international law and addresses the question how, and to what extent WTO law reflects and influences public international law.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents




Table of Cases




1. Unilateral Reactions within the Multilateral WTO Context: the Case of WTO Trade Remedies


1.1. Introduction


1.2. Limiting Unilateralism in International Relations: from Coexistence through

Cooperation towards a Global Community


1.3. The Evolving Idea of Cooperation in the International Economic Context


1.4. The WTO and the Financial Crisis


1.5. Ubi Societas Ibi Ius: the Role of International Economic Law in the

International Society


1.6. Dispute Settlement Systems and Unilateral Reactions



2. The Relationship between Public International Law and WTO Law


2.1. WTO Law and Public International Law


2.2. The Applicability of Public International Law in the WTO Context


2.3. The Risk of Fragmentation of Public International Law


2.4. The Reciprocal Influence of WTO Law and Public International Law


2.5. The Concept of Self-Help in Public International Law


2.6. The Place and Role of WTO Trade Remedies: Particular Forms of Self-Help

or Sui Generis Measures?


2.7. Self-Help Measures and WTO Trade Remedies


2.8. A Delegation of Powers by the WTO Legal System to the Member States


2.9. Judicial Control over the Correct Use of Trade Remedies




3. Trade Remedies in WTO and Public International Law


3.1. Political and Economic Rationale of Trade Remedies


3.2. A Brief History of Trade Remedies Negotiations


3.2.1 Antidumping Measures


3.2.2. Safeguard Measures


3.2.3. Countervailing Measures


3.3. The Structure of Trade Remedies


3.3.1. The Act Subsidies Increased Imports Dumping


3.3.2. Injury and the Injured State


3.3.3. Causality


3.4. Trade Remedies Principles


3.4.1. Non-Mandatory


3.4.2. Specificity


3.4.3. Reversibility and Temporary Limits


3.4.4. Consultation before Adoption


3.4.5. Non-Reparation


3.4.6. Pre-emptive Use of Trade Remedies


3.4.7. Proportionality Proportionality in the WTO Context



Final Remarks








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Roberto Soprano is Visiting Professor at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Brussels Diplomatic Academy in Belgium.