FROM THE INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this text is to address one small but important and significant aspect (or process) of making man-made waste disposal more earth-friendly: biosolids composting. Since 1970, much progress has been made in sewage treatment technology. Corrective actions in treating domestic and industrial wastes have advanced to the point and have been underway for a long enough period now so that today one can visit most local lakes and streams and clearly see the lake or river bottom near a shallow shoreline. This, of course, is an example of an environmental improvement that can be readily seen. This visible improvement is also a "predictor" of what the future can hold for present and future generations who respect lakes and streams, and thus the environment.
Recent improvements in the water quality of streams and lakes are only a small part of the progress that has been made. Improvements in wastewater technology have also worked to improve the quality of water we use; that is, the water we drink.
This last statement may seem strange to some readers. How does wastewater treatment improve the quality of potable water when we do not receive our drinking water from wastewater treatment plant effluent? Effluent from wastewater treatment plants in not normally cross-connected with their municipality's drinking water supply. Many communities draw water from streams and rivers for use in domestic potable water supplies and these same streams and rivers serve as outfalls, normally upstream, for wastewater treatment plant effluent. Communities are growing. Populations within these burgeoning communities are also growing. Along with growth in community size and in population is a corresponding growth in the need for more potable water. Thus, the stream or river that provides the water supply and serves as the outfall for wastewater treatment plant effluent is put under increasing demand for its main product: potable water.
Wastewater Biosolids to Compost covers EPA 503 regulations, testing procedures, advancements in odor control, marketing the product, and composting program economics.
Case Study - Terminology - Scope of Text
Introduction - Biosolids as Components of the Wastestream - Unwanted Solids - Biosolids Treatment Methods - Case Study - Example - Composting-An Introduction - Biosolids Testing Procedures (Prior to Composting) - Summary & Other Important Considerations
Capacity and Design Criteria
Capacity and Design Criteria - Mass and Energy Balances
Asp Model Composting Facility
Introduction - Asp Model Composting Facility - Regulatory Considerations
Bulking Material Bulking Material
Receiving, Mixing and Material Handling Requirements
Preliminary Information - Material Quantities & Characteristics - Biosolids Receiving & Handling - Standard Operating Procedure (Sop) For Mixing
Composting: Aerated Static Pile
Aeration For Composting and Curing - Description of Asp Model Aeration System for Composting - Construction of Composting Piles
Curing and Drying
Theory of Operation - Process Operation
Screening - Screening: Asp Model Composting Facility
Distribution & Marketing
Introduction - Marketing Compost - Case Study
Sampling and Testing
Introduction - Regulatory Requirements - Sampling and Testing Requirements (Asp Model) - Data Recording - Sampling Locations - Sample Types - Sampling Procedures - Compost Testing - Sample Labeling
Introduction - Composting and Odor Control - The Nature of Odors - Measuring Odors - Malodorous Compounds in Biosolids-Derived Compost - Building Ventilation Air Dispersion - Odor Management: Biosolids and Mixing Area - Composting Process Air Odor Management - Odor Control - Alternative 1: Mist Scrubber Design Criteria (Asp Model) - Alternative 2: Packed Tower System (Asp Model) - Comparison of Scrubber Alternatives - Other Odor Control Alternatives
Health and Safety Concerns
Introduction - Health and Safety Concerns Related To Composting
The Economics of Biosolids Composting
Introduction - Case Study - The Decision-Making Process - Operation & Maintenance (O & M) Costs