1st Edition

Water & Wastewater Infrastructure Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

By Frank R. Spellman Copyright 2013
    463 Pages 64 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    463 Pages 64 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A critical aspect of sustainability associated with water and wastewater systems is to maintain and manage infrastructure in the most efficient and economical manner while complying with environmental regulations and keeping rates at acceptable levels. Given the high cost of fuel, our growing population, and the associated increase in energy needs, it is important to address energy use and future energy availability for the treatment of the water we drink and the water we pollute. Water & Wastewater Infrastructure: Energy Efficiency and Sustainability addresses these issues, detailing the processes that can assist facilities to become more energy efficient and providing guidance to ensure their sustainability.

    The text begins with brief descriptions of the water and wastewater treatment industries. It then describes some of the basics of energy and discusses what planning for a sustainable energy future in water and wastewater treatment plants entails. The author explores energy-saving options and provides case studies to demonstrate how some facilities have used equipment, technology, and operating strategies to save money and reduce their impact. The energy-efficient technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), gas turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, steam turbines, and fuel cells. The author also addresses biomass power and biogas.

    The section on sustainability and renewable energy covers hydropower, solar power, and wind power as well as energy conservation measures for treating wastewater. Nine appendices provide individual case studies that present evaluations of energy conservation measures, results, payback analysis, and conclusions. This book addresses the challenges faced by water and wastewater treatment facilities by examining how they can operate in ways that provide economic and environmental benefits, save money, reduce environmental impact, and lead to sustainability.

    Section I The Basics

    Setting the Stage
    Sustainable Water/Wastewater Infrastructure
    Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Gap
    Energy Efficiency: Water/Wastewater Treatment Operations
    References and Recommended Reading

    Characteristics of the Wastewater and Drinking Water Industries
    Characteristics of the Wastewater Industry
    Characteristics of the Drinking Water Industry
    Capital Stock and Impact on Operations and Maintenance
    Wastewater Capital Stock
    Drinking Water Capital Stock
    Costs of Providing Service
    References and Recommended Reading

    Water, Wastewater, and Energy
    Energy Basics
    Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy
    Units for Comparing Energy
    References and Recommended Reading

    Planning for a Sustainable Energy Future
    Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Energy Usage
    Fast Facts
    Benchmark It!
    Baseline Audit
    References and Recommended Reading

    Section II Energy-Efficient Equipment, Technology, and Operating Strategies

    Energy-Efficient Equipment
    Variable-Frequency Drives
    HVAC Enhancements
    Energy-Smart Lighting
    References and Recommended Reading

    Energy-Efficient Operating Strategies
    Electrical Load Management
    Biosolids Management
    Operations and Maintenance: Energy- and Cost-Saving Procedures
    Inflow and Infiltration Control
    References and Recommended Reading

    Section III Energy-Efficient Technology

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
    CHP Key Definitions
    Calculating Total CHP System Efficiency
    Calculating Effective Electric Efficiency
    Selecting CHP Efficiency Metrics
    Wastewater Treatment Facilities with CHP
    Overview of CHP Technologies
    References and Recommended Reading

    Gas Turbines
    Gas Turbine Technology
    References and Recommended Reading

    Microturbine Applications
    Microturbine Technology
    Design Characteristics
    Microturbine Performance Characteristics
    References and Recommended Reading

    Reciprocating Engines
    Reciprocating Engine Technology
    Design Characteristics
    Performance Characteristics
    References and Recommended Reading

    Steam Turbines
    Steam Turbine: Basic Process and Components
    Performance Characteristics
    References and Recommended Reading

    Fuel Cells
    Fuel Cells: The Basics
    Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Realistic View
    CHP Applications
    References and Recommended Reading

    Section IV Biomass Power and Heat Generation

    CHP and Wastewater Biogas
    Grasshopper Generation
    Biomass for Power and Heat Generation
    Biogas (Methane, CH4)
    Wastewater Treatment Plant Biogas
    Cogeneration Using Landfill Biogas
    References and Recommended Reading

    Section V Sustainability Using Renewable Energy

    Macro- and Microhydropower
    Hydropower Basic Concepts
    Reservoir Stored Energy
    Advanced Hydropower Technology
    Hydropower Generation: Dissolved Oxygen Concerns
    Bottom Line on Macrohydropower
    Microhydropower Concepts
    Permits and Water Rights
    References and Recommended Reading

    Solar Power
    Concentrating Solar Power
    Photovoltaics (PV)
    Solar Power Applications
    Structure Daylighting
    Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications
    References and Recommended Reading

    Wind Power
    It’s All About the Wind
    Air in Motion
    Wind Energy
    Wind Power Basics
    Wind Turbine Types
    Turbine Features
    Wind Energy and Power Calculations
    Small-Scale Wind Power
    Wind Power Applications in Water/Wastewater Treatment
    References and Recommended Reading

    Energy Conservation Measures for Wastewater Treatment
    Pumping System Energy Conservation Measures
    Design and Control of Aeration Systems
    References and Recommended Reading

    Section VI Appendices

    Appendix A.
    Magnetic Bearing Turbo Blowers at the Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District De Pere Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Appendix B.
    Turblex® Blowers and Air Flow Control Valves on the Sheboygan Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Appendix C.
    Upgrade from Mechanical Aeration to Air-Bearing Turbo Blowers and Fine-Bubble Diffusers at the Big Gulch Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Appendix D.
    Optical DO Sensor Technology and Aerator Rotor VFD Control at the City of Bartlett, Tennessee, Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Appendix E.
    Advanced Aeration Control for the Oxnard, California, Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Appendix F.
    DO Optimization Using Floating Pressure Blower Control in a Most Open Valve Strategy at the Narragansett Bay Commission Bucklin Point WTTP, Rhode Island

    Appendix G.
    Capacity and Fuel Efficiency Improvements at Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission Western Branch WWTP, Prince Georges County, Maryland

    Appendix H.
    Permit-Safe and Energy-Smart Greening of Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations at the San Jose/Santa Clara, California, Water Pollution Control Plant

    Appendix I.
    Diffuser Upgrades and DO Controlled Blowers at the Waco, Texas, Metropolitan Area Regional Sewer System Wastewater Treatment Facility




    Frank R. Spellman, Ph.D., is a retired U.S. Naval Officer with 26 years of active duty, a retired environmental safety and health manager for a large wastewater sanitation district in Virginia, and a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He is the author or co-author of 75 books, with more soon to be published. Dr. Spellman consults on environmental matters with the U.S. Department of Justice and various law firms and environmental entities around the globe.

    "Water & Wastewater Infrastructure: Energy Efficiency and Sustainability is a recommendation for college-level reference collections in science and nature which are strong in environmental engineering, and describes various water and wastewater treatment approaches and what it means for sustainable energy in the area. Chapters provide case studies of facilities that have used technology to reduce their environmental impact, and point out various alternative power options and sustainable and renewable energy sources for treating wastewater. From conservation measures and analysis to special wastewater and water challenges, this surveys the extent of the industry's challenges and approaches to water and wastewater management, and is key for any collection strong in environmental engineering applications."
    —Midwest Book Review, October 2014

    "… a recommendation for any environmental engineering collection and offers descriptions of the methods and applications of the water and wastewater industries. It then proceeds to discuss changing energy needs and provides case studies to show how some facilities have used new equipment and technology to save money by becoming more energy efficient. … A 'must' for environmental engineers and any involved in wastewater management processes.
    —California Bookwatch, November 2013