Water Chemistry : Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource book cover
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Water Chemistry
Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource





ISBN 9781439830680
Published August 19, 2010 by CRC Press
416 Pages 100 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Carefully crafted to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of water in the environment, Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource examines water issues within the broad framework of sustainability, an issue of increasing importance as the demands of Earth’s human population threaten to overwhelm the planet’s carrying capacity. Renowned environmental author Stanley Manahan provides more than just basic coverage of the chemistry of water. He relates the science and technology of this amazing substance to areas essential to sustainability science, including environmental and green chemistry, industrial ecology, and green (sustainable) science and technology. The inclusion of a separate chapter that comprehensively covers energy, including renewable and emerging sources, sets this book a part.

Manahan explains how the hydrosphere relates to the geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthrosphere. His approach views Planet Earth as consisting of these five mutually interacting spheres. He covers biogeochemical cycles and the essential role of water in these basic cycles of materials. He also defines environmental chemistry and green chemistry, emphasizing water’s role in the practice of each. Manahan highlights the role of the anthrosphere, that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. He underscores its overwhelming influence on the environment and its pervasive effects on the hydrosphere. He also covers the essential role that water plays in the sustainable operation of the anthrosphere and how it can be maintained in a manner that will enable it to operate in harmony with the environment for generations to come.

Written at an intermediate level, this is an appropriate text for the study of current affairs in environmental chemistry. It provides a review and grounding in basic and organic chemistry for those students who need it and also fills a niche for an aquatic chemistry book that relates the hydrosphere to the four other environmental spheres.

Table of Contents

Water and the Five Spheres of the Environment
Water
The Hydrosphere
The Geosphere and the Hydrosphere
The Atmosphere and the Hydrosphere
The Biosphere and the Hydrosphere
The Anthrosphere and the Hydrosphere
Water and Biogeochemical Cycles
Water and Environmental Chemistry
Water and Green Chemistry
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Properties of Water and the Hydrosphere
The Fantastic Water Molecule
Water as an Essential Resource
The Hydrological Cycle
Standing Bodies of Water
Flowing Water
Groundwater
Water Utilization
Impoundment and Transfer of Water
Water: A Very Useful Green Substance
Aquatic Life
Global Warming and Water
References
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems


Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry
Introduction to Aquatic Chemistry
Gases in Water
Water Acidity and Carbon Dioxide in Water
Alkalinity
Calcium and Other Metals in Water
Complexation and Chelation
Bonding and Structure of Metal Complexes
Calculations of Species Concentrations
Complexation by Deprotonated Ligands
Complexation by Protonated Ligands
Solubilization of Lead Ion from Solids by NTA
Polyphosphates and Phosphonates in Water
Complexation by Humic Substances
Complexation and Redox Processes
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Oxidation–Reduction in Aquatic Chemistry
The Significance of Oxidation–Reduction
Electron and Redox Reactions
Electron Activity and pE
The Nernst Equation
Reaction Tendency: Whole Reaction from Half-Reactions
The Nernst Equation and Chemical Equilibrium.
The Relationship of pE to Free Energy
Reactions in Terms of One Electron-Mole
The Limits of pE in Water
pE Values in Natural Water Systems
pE–pH Diagrams
Humic Substances as Natural Reductants
Photochemical Processes in Oxidation–Reduction
Corrosion
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Phase Interactions in Aquatic Chemistry
Chemical Interactions Involving Solids, Gases, and Water
Importance and Formation of Sediments
Solubilities
Colloidal Particles in Water
Colloidal Properties of Clays
Aggregation of Particles
Surface Sorption by Solids
Solute Exchange with Bottom Sediments
Interstitial Water
Phase Interactions in Chemical Fate and Transport
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems


Aquatic Microbial Biochemistry
Aquatic Biochemical Processes
Algae
Fungi
Protozoa
Bacteria
The Prokaryotic Bacterial Cell
Kinetics of Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Metabolism
Microbial Transformations of Carbon
Biodegradation of Organic Matter
Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen
Microbial Transformations of Phosphorus and Sulfur
Microbial Transformations of Halogens and Organohalides
Microbial Transformations of Metals and Metalloids
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Water Pollution
Nature and Types of Water Pollutants
Elemental Pollutants
Heavy Metals
Metalloids
Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids
Inorganic Species
Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication
Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity
Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants
Organic Pollutants
Pesticides in Water
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes
Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems


Water Treatment
Water Treatment and Water Use
Municipal Water Treatment
Treatment of Water for Industrial Use
Sewage Treatment
Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Removal of Solids
Removal of Calcium and other Metals
Removal of Dissolved Organics
Removal of Dissolved Inorganics
Sludge
Water Disinfection
Natural Water Purification Processes
Green Water
Water Conservation
Protecting Water Supplies from Attack
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems


Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater
General Aspects of Environmental Chemical Analysis
Classical Methods
Spectrophotometric Methods
Electrochemical Methods of Analysis
Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
Analysis of Water
Automated Water Analyses
Speciation
Emerging Contaminants in Water Analysis
Chiral Contaminants
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything
The Energy Challenge
Nature of Energy
Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere
Energy Devices and Conversions
Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency
Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Coal
Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization
Industrial Ecology for Energy and Chemicals
Nuclear Energy
Geothermal Energy
The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source
Energy from Moving Air and Moving Water
Biomass Energy
Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy
Combined Power Cycles
A System of Industrial Ecology for Methane Production
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems


Fundamentals of Chemistry
The Science of Matter
Elements
Chemical Bonding
Chemical Reactions and Equations
Solutions
Literature Cited
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Organic Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds
Synthetic Polymers
Supplementary References
Questions and Problems

Index

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Reviews

"…it is a thorough review, and by virtue of its simple but clear diagrams and plain English makes the text easy to follow and understand. There is continuity between chapters, thus allowing a smooth flow between the various subjects whilst adding to its easy-reading nature."
Chromatographia, March 2011,73:1039

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