Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Water Chemistry

Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource, 1st Edition

By Stanley E. Manahan

CRC Press

416 pages | 100 B/W Illus.

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Carefully crafted to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of water in the environment, Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource examines water issues within the broad framework of sustainability, an issue of increasing importance as the demands of Earth’s human population threaten to overwhelm the planet’s carrying capacity. Renowned environmental author Stanley Manahan provides more than just basic coverage of the chemistry of water. He relates the science and technology of this amazing substance to areas essential to sustainability science, including environmental and green chemistry, industrial ecology, and green (sustainable) science and technology. The inclusion of a separate chapter that comprehensively covers energy, including renewable and emerging sources, sets this book a part.

Manahan explains how the hydrosphere relates to the geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthrosphere. His approach views Planet Earth as consisting of these five mutually interacting spheres. He covers biogeochemical cycles and the essential role of water in these basic cycles of materials. He also defines environmental chemistry and green chemistry, emphasizing water’s role in the practice of each. Manahan highlights the role of the anthrosphere, that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. He underscores its overwhelming influence on the environment and its pervasive effects on the hydrosphere. He also covers the essential role that water plays in the sustainable operation of the anthrosphere and how it can be maintained in a manner that will enable it to operate in harmony with the environment for generations to come.

Written at an intermediate level, this is an appropriate text for the study of current affairs in environmental chemistry. It provides a review and grounding in basic and organic chemistry for those students who need it and also fills a niche for an aquatic chemistry book that relates the hydrosphere to the four other environmental spheres.


"…it is a thorough review, and by virtue of its simple but clear diagrams and plain English makes the text easy to follow and understand. There is continuity between chapters, thus allowing a smooth flow between the various subjects whilst adding to its easy-reading nature."

Chromatographia, March 2011,73:1039

Table of Contents

Water and the Five Spheres of the Environment


The Hydrosphere

The Geosphere and the Hydrosphere

The Atmosphere and the Hydrosphere

The Biosphere and the Hydrosphere

The Anthrosphere and the Hydrosphere

Water and Biogeochemical Cycles

Water and Environmental Chemistry

Water and Green Chemistry

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Properties of Water and the Hydrosphere

The Fantastic Water Molecule

Water as an Essential Resource

The Hydrological Cycle

Standing Bodies of Water

Flowing Water


Water Utilization

Impoundment and Transfer of Water

Water: A Very Useful Green Substance

Aquatic Life

Global Warming and Water


Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry

Introduction to Aquatic Chemistry

Gases in Water

Water Acidity and Carbon Dioxide in Water


Calcium and Other Metals in Water

Complexation and Chelation

Bonding and Structure of Metal Complexes

Calculations of Species Concentrations

Complexation by Deprotonated Ligands

Complexation by Protonated Ligands

Solubilization of Lead Ion from Solids by NTA

Polyphosphates and Phosphonates in Water

Complexation by Humic Substances

Complexation and Redox Processes

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Oxidation–Reduction in Aquatic Chemistry

The Significance of Oxidation–Reduction

Electron and Redox Reactions

Electron Activity and pE

The Nernst Equation

Reaction Tendency: Whole Reaction from Half-Reactions

The Nernst Equation and Chemical Equilibrium.

The Relationship of pE to Free Energy

Reactions in Terms of One Electron-Mole

The Limits of pE in Water

pE Values in Natural Water Systems

pE–pH Diagrams

Humic Substances as Natural Reductants

Photochemical Processes in Oxidation–Reduction


Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Phase Interactions in Aquatic Chemistry

Chemical Interactions Involving Solids, Gases, and Water

Importance and Formation of Sediments


Colloidal Particles in Water

Colloidal Properties of Clays

Aggregation of Particles

Surface Sorption by Solids

Solute Exchange with Bottom Sediments

Interstitial Water

Phase Interactions in Chemical Fate and Transport

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Aquatic Microbial Biochemistry

Aquatic Biochemical Processes





The Prokaryotic Bacterial Cell

Kinetics of Bacterial Growth

Bacterial Metabolism

Microbial Transformations of Carbon

Biodegradation of Organic Matter

Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen

Microbial Transformations of Phosphorus and Sulfur

Microbial Transformations of Halogens and Organohalides

Microbial Transformations of Metals and Metalloids

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Water Pollution

Nature and Types of Water Pollutants

Elemental Pollutants

Heavy Metals


Organically Bound Metals and Metalloids

Inorganic Species

Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication

Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity

Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants

Organic Pollutants

Pesticides in Water

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes

Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Water Treatment

Water Treatment and Water Use

Municipal Water Treatment

Treatment of Water for Industrial Use

Sewage Treatment

Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Removal of Solids

Removal of Calcium and other Metals

Removal of Dissolved Organics

Removal of Dissolved Inorganics


Water Disinfection

Natural Water Purification Processes

Green Water

Water Conservation

Protecting Water Supplies from Attack

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater

General Aspects of Environmental Chemical Analysis

Classical Methods

Spectrophotometric Methods

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis


Mass Spectrometry

Analysis of Water

Automated Water Analyses


Emerging Contaminants in Water Analysis

Chiral Contaminants

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything

The Energy Challenge

Nature of Energy

Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere

Energy Devices and Conversions

Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources

Petroleum and Natural Gas


Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization

Industrial Ecology for Energy and Chemicals

Nuclear Energy

Geothermal Energy

The Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source

Energy from Moving Air and Moving Water

Biomass Energy

Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy

Combined Power Cycles

A System of Industrial Ecology for Methane Production

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Fundamentals of Chemistry

The Science of Matter


Chemical Bonding

Chemical Reactions and Equations


Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems

Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry


Organic Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

Synthetic Polymers

Supplementary References

Questions and Problems


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply