1st Edition

Water for Energy and Fuel Production

ISBN 9781482216189
Published May 16, 2014 by CRC Press
440 Pages 67 B/W Illustrations

USD $290.00

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Book Description

Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy—hydrogen.

Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water’s use as a direct source of energy and fuel—such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways—but also:

  • Describes water’s benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam
  • Examines water’s role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst—as well as steam’s role as a reactant—for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels
  • Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feedstock to synthetic fuels in the presence and absence of a catalyst

Employing illustrative case studies and commercial examples, Water for Energy and Fuel Production demonstrates the versatility of water as a provider of energy and fuel, conveying the message that as energy demand and environmental concerns grow, so should our vigilance in pursuing the role of water in the energy landscape.

Table of Contents

Series Preface




Global Energy Landscape: Past, Present, and Future

The Theme and Outline of the Book

Water Base Refinery and Water Management for the Future


Role of Water in Recovery and Production of Raw Fuels


Increased Water Usage for Recovery of Coal Bed Methane and Gas from Geopressurized Zones

EOR Process

Role of Water in the Fracking Process

Water Requirement for Mining, Preparation, and Extraction of Solid Fuels


Energy Recovery by Benign Hydrothermal Processes (ERP)


Role of Water in Production of Nuclear Power

Hydrothermal Processes for Recovery of Geothermal Energy

Role of Water in Storage of Solar Energy

Steam Turbine


Steam Gasification and Reforming Technologies


Mechanisms, Kinetics, and Catalysis of Steam Gasification and Reforming

Dry Reforming


Effects of Feedstock and Operating Conditions on Product Distributions

Steam Gasification and Reforming Reactors

Novel Steam Gasification and Reforming Processes


Hydrothermal Processes in Subcritical Water


Hydrothermal Carbonization (Wet Pyrolysis)

Hydrothermal Liquefaction

Hydrothermal Gasification

Coal–Water Chemistry


Aqueous Phase Reforming and Bioforming Process


Aqueous Phase Reforming

APR versus Steam Reforming

Thermodynamics of APR

Kinetics and Catalysis of APR Process

Production of Syngas and Monofunctional Groups and Their Upgrading

Virent’s Bioforming Process


Biofine Hydrolysis Process and Derivative Product Upgrading Technologies


The Hydrolysis Process

Upgrading of Intermediate Products from the Biofine Process

Comparison of Biofine Process with Other Technologies

Large-Scale Biofine Process


Anaerobic Digestion of Aqueous Waste for Methane and Hydrogen


Basic Principles of Anaerobic Digestion

Microbes and the Effects of Operating Conditions

Feedstock Effects


Effects of Harvesting, Storage, and Pretreatment

Digester Configurations

Simulation, Modeling, Scale-Up, and Control of Fermentation Process

Purification of Biogas

Utilization of Biogas and Digestate


Hydrolysis and Fermentation Technologies for Alcohols


Grain (Corn) Ethanol

Corn to Ethanol Process Technologies

Cellulosic Ethanol

Fermentation of Sugar to Isobutanol


Fuel Production by Supercritical Water


Properties of SCW

Role of SCW in Chemical Synthesis

Oxidation in SCW

Decomposition and Extraction of Materials by SCW

Gasification in SCW

Reforming in SCW


Water Dissociation Technologies for Hydrogen


Electrolysis and Its Derivative Technologies

Photochemical and Its Derivative Technologies

Thermal and Thermochemical Decomposition of Water

Other Miscellaneous Technologies


Methane from Gas Hydrates

Introduction: What Is Gas Hydrate and How Is It Formed?

Sources, Sizes, and Importance of Gas Hydrate deposits

Importance of Gas Hydrates on Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

Environmental Impacts of Gas Hydrates

Production of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs


Power and Energy Directly from Water


Hydroelectric Power by Water Dams

Hydrokinetic Energy and Power Generation

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Growth of Hydrokinetic Energy and OTEC Industries and Cost of Hydrokinetic and OTEC Power



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Yatish T. Shah received his BS from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA and MS and Sc.D from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA. During his 40+ years of experience, he has served as chemical and petroleum engineering department chairman, dean of engineering, chief research officer, provost, visiting scholar, and visiting professor at ten different institutions. Currently he is professor of engineering at Norfolk State University, Virginia, USA. He is also an active consultant to numerous organizations in the energy sector. He has authored four books and over 250 reviews and refereed technical publications in the areas of energy, environmental, and reaction engineering.


"This book is a first of its kind where one can refer to for the roles of water in fossil (conventional and unconventional), nuclear, and renewable energy sectors. It not only covers the use of water as a cooling or heating career fluid, but also as a reactant and reaction medium in different energy conversion processes."
—Sandeep Kumar, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

"This book provides encyclopedic coverage of the role of water in all aspects of energy production. This allows readers to gain general knowledge of a very wide range of topics, and the extensive references allow them to dig deeper when necessary. The book should prove valuable to engineers and scientists working in water and energy supply. … [It] is a valuable addition to the literature."
—Howard G. McIlvried, III, Gulf Research & Development Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (Retired)

"This monograph gives comprehensive coverage of the use of water as a solvent, reactant, and energy carrier for producing energy, chemicals, and fuels. It covers both the traditional technologies as well as the technologies that are likely to be important in the years to come. Considering that water is becoming a scarce commodity in several countries, it will be a timely and welcome addition to the books in the field of green engineering … [as] it conveys to the reader the importance of water in sustainable development."
—Deepak Kunzru, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

"The book provides a vibrant platform for students, researchers, entrepreneurs, and technologists to understand and learn more about the role of water in energy and fuel production in sustaining the ecosystem. The book focuses on promoting the concept of green and clean technology using chemistry and chemical engineering practices to reduce or eliminate the use and/or generation of potentially hazardous materials...[It] clearly overviews the methodologies for harnessing water energy for competing their market share."

--Sanjeev S Katti, D Parvatalu, and Jyoti Verma, ONGC Energy Center, India