Wi-Fi Enabled Healthcare: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Wi-Fi Enabled Healthcare

1st Edition

By Ali Youssef, Douglas McDonald II, Jon Linton, Bob Zemke, Aaron Earle

Auerbach Publications

300 pages | 55 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466560406
pub: 2014-02-19
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Focusing on its recent proliferation in hospital systems, Wi-Fi Enabled Healthcare explains how Wi-Fi is transforming clinical work flows and infusing new life into the types of mobile devices being implemented in hospitals. Drawing on first-hand experiences from one of the largest healthcare systems in the United States, it covers the key areas associated with wireless network design, security, and support.

Reporting on cutting-edge developments and emerging standards in Wi-Fi technologies, the book explores security implications for each device type. It covers real-time location services and emerging trends in cloud-based wireless architecture. It also outlines several options and design consideration for employee wireless coverage, voice over wireless (including smart phones), mobile medical devices, and wireless guest services.

This book presents authoritative insight into the challenges that exist in adding Wi-Fi within a healthcare setting. It explores several solutions in each space along with design considerations and pros and cons. It also supplies an in-depth look at voice over wireless, mobile medical devices, and wireless guest services.

The authors provide readers with the technical knowhow required to ensure their systems provide the reliable, end-to-end communications necessary to surmount today’s challenges and capitalize on new opportunities. The shared experience and lessons learned provide essential guidance for large and small healthcare organizations in the United States and around the world.

This book is an ideal reference for network design engineers and high-level hospital executives that are thinking about adding or improving upon Wi-Fi in their hospitals or hospital systems.

Table of Contents

Brief History of Wi-Fi

History and Current Growth and Proliferation of Wi-Fi in Hospitals

Regulatory Bodies

Federal Communications Commission

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Wi-Fi Alliance

Core Programs

Optional Programs

International Organization for Standardization

Wi-Fi Impacts on Clinical Workflow



Wireless Architecture Considerations

About Wi-Fi Networks

History of Wireless Local Area Network Architecture

Basic Components of All Network Architectures

The MAC Layer

Vendor-Specific Solutions

Autonomous Architecture

Controller-Based Architectures

Distributed Architecture Medical Devices

Medical Imaging

Wireless on Wheels

Tablets and Smart Phones


Site Survey Process

Wireless Site Survey Process


The Statement of Work

Facility Blueprints

Pre-Survey Walkthrough

Design Considerations

High Capacity Design

Channel Planning

Multi-Floor Designs


Augmenting Existing Designs

Upgrading Access Point Hardware


Network Infrastructure

Network Ports

Power Availability

Network Bandwidth

IP Address Availability

Survey Equipment

Form Factor

Site Survey Design Software

Spectrum Analyzer

Survey Types

Predictive Survey

Passive Survey

Active Survey

Survey Techniques

Site Survey Report

Post-Validation Survey

Wireless Security Wi-Fi

About Information Security and Wireless Networking




Wireless Security Risks and Threats

Denial of Service

Malicious Code

Social Engineering

Signal Analysis


Rogue Access Points

Wireless Hacking and Hackers

Motives of Wireless Hackers

War Driving

Tracking War Drivers

The Hacking Process

Information Gathering



Expanding Privileges and Accessibility

Cleaning up the Trails

Shared Key Authentication

Open Key Authentication

Wired Equivalent Privacy Standard


Authentication Server



Extensive Authentication Protocol over Local Area Network (EAPOL)

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)

Extensible Authentication Protocol







Wi-Fi Protected Access


Robust Secure Network (RSN)

Transition Secure Network (TSN)

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol


Advance Encryption Standard

802.11i System Overview

Wi-Fi Protected Access

Rogue Access Points Detection

Wireless Security Tools

Scanning Tools

Sniffing Tools

Hybrid Tools

Cracking Tools

Access Point Attacking Tools

Wireless Security Policy Areas

Password Policy

Access Policy

Rogue Access Point Policy

Guest Access Policy

Remote WLAN Access Policy

Physical Security

Wireless Monitoring and Security Incident Response

HIPAA and Wi-Fi

Wireless Guest Services

Sponsored, Open Access, and Self-Enrollment

Sponsored Guest Access

Self-Enrollment Guest Access

Open Access

Captive Portal Page Types

No Registration Splash Page


Manual Registration

Sponsored Registration

Supporting Infrastructure

Revenue Generation

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)



Mobile Medical Devices

Functional Testing

Network Testing

Failover and Redundancy Test

Mobile X-Ray Machines

Medication Dispensing Systems

IV Pumps

Electrocardiogram Carts

Ultrasound Devices

Blood Gas Analyzers

Hemodialysis Machines


Voice over Wi-Fi

Why VoWi-Fi?

The Challenges of VoWi-Fi

Quality of Service Fundamentals

Evolution of QoS

The Journey of a Voice Packet

What Happens at Phone One

What Happens at the Access Point

What Happens at Switch One

What Happens at the Router

Differentiated Services


Anatomy of VoIP

The Anatomy of Codecs

Proprietary Protocols

Wireless Arbitration

Troubleshooting VoWi-Fi


Real Time Location Services

RTLS Technologies





How RTLS Works


ISO/IEC Standards

Different Types of Transmitters


Asset Management

Equipment Rentals


Condition Monitoring

Patient and Clinician Safety

Infection Control


RTLS Issues

Privacy Concerns

Challenges with Accuracy

Maintenance and Costs

The Wireless Project Management Process

Refining the Scope

Scheduling and Developing Milestones

Developing a Budget

Quality Assurance

Communication Strategy

Risk Management

Change Management

Closure Criteria

1. Identify Key Stakeholders and Set up aKickoff Meeting

2. Perform an RFI and RFP to Choose Wireless Vendor

3. Survey Network Closets for Port Capacity and POE Availability

4. Perform Predictive and Onsite Wireless Survey

5. Develop Detailed Physical and Logical Architecture

6. Develop Survey Report and Create Cabling Bid Package

7. Order Hardware and Consider Lead Times on Project Plan

8. Identify Third-Party Training Requirements

9. Stage Hardware

10. Oversee Installation and Turn-up of Wireless Network Using Standard Change Management Process

11. Ensure that All Hardware Is Set up on the Enterprise Monitoring System

12. Validate Channel and Power Plan

13. Conduct Post-Implementation Survey and Make Modifications as Needed

14. Perform UAT Using Various Form Factors of End User Devices

15. Send a Series of Communications Outlining Offerings with Instructions

16. Develop Help Desk Knowledge Base for Common Troubleshooting

17. Create Runbook

18. Hand Off Support to Ongoing Operations Team

19. Ensure that a Process is in Place for Onboarding and Certifying Wireless Devices

Support Considerations and Lifecycle

Tool Set

Protocol Analyzer

Voice Analyzer

Spectrum Analyzer

Site Survey Software

Performance Software

Packet Capturing

Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems (WIPS)

Wireless Network Management

Staffing Considerations

Vendor Neutral Training

Software Tool Training

Wireless Manufacturer Training

Wireless Runbook


Acceptable Use

Disaster Recovery



Systems Lifecycle

Routine Maintenance

Technical Support

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Infrastructure Code Upgrade

End User Device Considerations

Lifecycle and Drivers for System Upgrades

Infrastructure Lifecycle

Client Device Lifecycle

Emerging Trends and Technologies

Demand for More Bandwidth and Denser Deployments

Device Density

Evolution of the Electronic Medical Record

Mobile Voice and Video

Guest Access

Patient Engagement with Social Media

Device Consolidation

Shrinking Herds of CoWs and WoWs


Client Devices

Design and Planning

Policy Management and Software Defined Networking (SDN)

The Rise of the Smart Phone

Application Performance and Security


802.11u/Hotspot 2.0/Passpoint



About the Authors

Ali Youssef is a Senior Network Architect specializing in mobility (CWNE #133) and digital health with over 18 years of design, strategy and operations experience. His passions include mHealth, patient engagement, patient experience, medical device design, and how IOT and mobile devices are transforming healthcare and improving clinical outcomes. Ali led the design, implementation, and ongoing support of one of the largest wireless networks in healthcare in North America. He speaks regularly at industry events like HIMSS, AAMI, CWNP, CTIA, IHP, and MDM&M, is an active member of the AAMI Wireless Strategy Task Force, and the chair for wireless technology for the Intelligent Hospital Association. He has authored several articles on topics ranging from network design to mobile medical device design, and a book entitled "Wi-Fi Enabled Healthcare."

Bob Zemke CPHIMS, CISSP is the Healthcare Solutions Manager at Extreme Networks and a member of the Association of Medical Instrumentation Wireless Strategy Task Force (WSTF). Bob has degrees in Telecommunications Management from Western Michigan University and a Master's degree in telecommunications and network management from Syracuse University’s prestigious iSchool. An IT professional with a broad span of experience in healthcare, Bob has been practicing and consulting in healthcare IT for over 15 years of experience in network design, deployment and management for hospital organizations globally. You can reach Bob on twitter @bobzemke

Doug McDonald CPHIMS, CWSP is the Wireless Network Manager for Henry Ford Health System in Rochester Hills, Michigan. He is responsible for over 7 million square feet of hospital grade wireless Infrastructure. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Information Technology and Services Management from Michigan State University and is currently pursuing an Executive MBA at Oakland University. Doug has fifteen years of experience as an IT professional. A member on the mHIMSS task force and coauthor of the mHIMSS roadmap, he holds a number of certifications including CPHIMS, CWNA, CWSP, CWDP, and ITILV3. You can reach Doug on twitter @DougRMcDonald

Jon Linton CWNE #89 is a Senior Wireless Architect at Henry Ford Health System. He holds a BS in Management from Kettering University and is one of the first 100 Certified Wireless Experts in the CWNP organization. Jon also holds the ITILV3 certification. He has been active in publishing articles, presenting webinars and writing blog posts on all things Wi-Fi. You can reach Jon on twitter @wifisamuri

Aaron Earle CRISC, CISSP, CISA, CISM, CCNP, MCP, A+, Net+, and Security + has been securing computer and network systems for over a decade. In this time he has accumulated thirty five certifications and two corporations. Aaron Earle has been involved with System Auditing, Vulnerability Assessment, Security Architecture, and Corporate Policy Writing. Aaron is an avid speaker and instructor for many security organizations worldwide. He has taught for prestigious security organizations such as Computer Security Institute (CSI) and Information Systems Security Association (ISSA). Aaron has also instructed personnel from almost every United States three or four letter government agency including NSA, FBI, and DOD. Aaron Earle’s talent has taken him around the world informing, educating, and safeguarding governments and companies alike. You can reach Aaron at aaronearle@aeecorp.com

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Service Industries
COMPUTERS / Networking / General
MEDICAL / Administration
REFERENCE / Yearbooks & Annuals
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications