Drawing on sources in Japanese, Chinese, and American archives and libraries, this book reassesses another facet of Woodrow Wilson's agenda at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I. Breaking with accepted scholarly opinions, the author argues that Wilson did not "betray" China, as many Chinese and Western scholars have charged; rather, Wilson successfully negotiated a compromise with the Japanese to ensure that China's sovereignty would be respected in Shandong Province. Rejecting the compromise, Chinese negotiators refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, creating conditions for the Soviet Union's entry into China and its later influence over the course of the Chinese revolution.
A systematic overview of life in the Soviet Union, this book includes chapters on the territorial divisions and ethnic composition of the country; the governmental and party system; Russian and minority cultures; the family; education; health care; sports; military service; classes and social privilege; poverty; prices and wages; the economic system, work, and the standard of living. It concludes with a discussion of the impact of Gorbachev's administration on Soviet society and the outlook for the future.