Wind Loading of Structures: 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Wind Loading of Structures

3rd Edition

By John D. Holmes

CRC Press

450 pages | 210 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781138893979
pub: 2017-07-26
Hardback: 9781482229196
pub: 2015-01-27
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pub: 2018-10-09
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A Definitive Up-to-Date Reference

Wind forces from various types of extreme wind events continue to generate ever-increasing damage to buildings and other structures. Wind Loading of Structures, Third Edition fills an important gap as an information source for practicing and academic engineers alike, explaining the principles of wind loads on structures, including the relevant aspects of meteorology, bluff-body aerodynamics, probability and statistics, and structural dynamics.

Written in Line with International Standards

Among the unique features of the book are its broad view of the major international codes and standards, and information on the extreme wind climates of a large number of countries of the world. It is directed towards practicing (particularly structural) engineers, and academics and graduate students.

The main changes from the earlier editions are:

  • Discussion of potential global warming effects on extreme events
  • More discussion of tornados and tornado-generated damage
  • A rational approach to gust durations for structural design
  • Expanded considerations of wind-induced fatigue damage
  • Consideration of aeolian vibrations of suspended transmission lines
  • Expansion of the sections on the cross-wind response of tall slender structures
  • Simplified approaches to wind loads on "porous" industrial, mining, and oil/gas structures
  • A more general discussion of formats in wind codes and standards

Not dedicated to a specific code or standard, Wind Loading of Structures, Third Edition highlights the general format and procedures related to all major codes and standards, addresses structures of various types, and presents you with topics not typically covered in traditional texts such as internal pressures, fatigue damage by wind forces, and equivalent static wind load distributions.


"This updated edition presents in a systematic and clear way the modern scientific knowledge and methods for wind loads, discusses wind engineering topics, addresses design issues and offers ample guidance for the effective treatment of wind load design. Overall, the book provides comprehensive guidance for practising structural engineers, in particular those designing structures where the design is dominated by wind-engineering considerations, as well as for students and researchers working with analogous wind-engineering themes in advanced university courses and research."

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

"The book gives a detailed, fundamental analysis of wind loading of structures and structural response. It clearly describes the mechanics of wind loading (including the types of windstorms) and the static and dynamic response of structures. This enables the designer to understand the process and makes it a useful design tool. With the application of the range of standards, it has worldwide application."

— Dr John Ginger, Cyclone Testing Station, James Cook University

"Holmes is an active and well-respected consultant in the field, and it is obvious that his book was written to fill the huge niche needed to treat real-world problems with wind loading on structures. For this reason it is also the first book I recommend to the many customers I have who—as practicing structural engineers not wind engineers—are in need of a comprehensive yet understandable reference text."

— Daryl Boggs, CPP, Inc.

" … provides in-depth information, and work examples where appropriate, on subjects of special interest, including internal pressure, wind-borne debris and associated damages, wind load effects on special and unusual structures, application of effective static wind load distribution, and comparison of advanced wind loading codes and standards. A unique feature of this book is that it is one of the very few books on wind engineering, if not the only book, that has undergone 2 extensive revisions, first in 2007 and then in 2014, to bring the content up to date with latest advances in knowledge. Furthermore, each chapter contains an exhaustive list of references, including the most recent publications, which is an extremely useful source of information for researchers and practitioners alike. … is an excellent book on wind loading of structures. I highly recommend this book by Dr John Holmes for use in graduate and senior undergraduates studies, structural engineering design against wind actions, and other design professional practices."

— Kenny Kwok, University of Western Sydney

"The book presents a complete and deep overview of the most important aspects of wind loading. It is easily read by people with a variety of engineering or technical backgrounds. Each chapter describes the state of the art and lists foundational and actual references."

— Ana Scarabino, Universidad Nacional de La Plata

"… a comprehensive and concise textbook for wind engineers … an excellent reference and textbook for graduate students, researchers and professionals."

— Guoqing Huang, Southwest Jiaotong University

"… a book with structure and martial suitable for wind engineering course text book as well as for professionals. The area of wind engineering covered and practical examples presented makes wind engineering principles to be easily understood by structural engineers."

— Seifu Bekele, Global Wind Technology Services (GWTS)

Praise for the second edition:

Wind Loading of Structures is a fine text for a wind engineering course and a useful reference for the practising wind engineer…. A must have for any wind engineer's library.

— Leighton Cochran, Past President, American Association for Wind Engineering

"The book provides comprehensive guidance for practising structural engineers … as well as for students and researchers working with analogous wind-engineering themes in advanced university courses and research."

—Charalampos Baniotopoulos, Structures and Buildings

Table of Contents

The nature of wind storms and wind-induced damage


Meteorological aspects

Types of wind storms

Wind damage

Wind-generated debris

Wind storm damage and loss prediction

Hurricane-damage modelling

Predicted effects of climate change


The following chapters and appendices


Prediction of design wind speeds and structural safety

Introduction and historical background

Principles of extreme value analysis

Extreme wind estimation by the Type I Distribution

The peaks-over-threshold approach

Parent wind distributions

Wind loads and structural safety

Wind load factors



Strong wind characteristics and turbulence


Mean wind speed profiles


Modification of wind flow by topography

Change of terrain

Weakening of a tropical cyclone after a coast crossing

Other sources



Basic bluff-body aerodynamics

Flow around bluff bodies

Pressure and force coefficients

Flat plates and walls

Rectangular prismatic shapes

Circular cylinders

Fluctuating forces and pressures



Resonant dynamic response and effective static load distributions


Principles of dynamic response

The random vibration or spectral approach

Effective static loading distributions

Aeroelastic forces

Fatigue under wind loading



Internal pressures


Single windward opening

Multiple windward and leeward openings

Nominally sealed buildings

Modelling of internal pressures



Laboratory simulation of strong winds and wind loads


Wind-tunnel layouts

Simulation of the natural wind flow

Modelling of structures for wind effects

Measurement of local pressures

Modelling of overall loads and response of structures

Blockage effects and corrections

Computational wind engineering



Low-rise buildings



General characteristics of wind loads on low-rise buildings

Buildings with pitched roofs

Multi-span buildings

Effects of parapets on low-rise buildings

Effect of building length

Internal pressures

A case study: optimum shaping of a low-rise building

Wind-tunnel databases



Tall buildings



Flow around tall buildings

Cladding pressures

Overall loading and dynamic response

Combination of along- and cross-wind response

Torsional loading and response

Interference effects


Motion perception and acceleration criteria


Case studies



Large roofs and sports stadiums


Wind flow over large roofs

Arched and domed roofs

Effective static load distributions

Air-supported roofs

Wind-tunnel methods

Case studies



Towers, chimneys and masts



Basic drag coefficients for tower sections

Dynamic along-wind response of tall slender towers

Cross-wind response of tall slender towers

Cooling towers

Guyed masts

Wind turbine towers

Case studies





Basic force coefficients for bridges

The nature of dynamic response of long-span bridges

Wind-tunnel techniques

Vibration of bridge cables

Case studies



Transmission lines


Structural response and calculation of wind loads

Risk models for transmission line systems

Wind-induced vibrations of transmission lines



Other structures


Walls and hoardings

Free-standing roofs and canopies

Attachments to buildings


Lighting frames and luminaires

Industrial complexes and offshore platforms



Wind-loading codes and standards


General descriptions

Basic wind speeds or pressures

Modification factors on wind velocity

Building external pressures

Building internal pressures

Other shapes and sectional force coefficients

Dynamic response calculations

Inter-code comparisons

General comments and future developments


A: Terminology

B: List of symbols

Probability distributions relevant to wind engineering

Extreme wind climates - A world survey

E: Some approximate formulas for structural natural frequencies

F: Example of application of the LRC method for the effective static wind loads on a simple structure

About the Author

Dr. John D. Holmes is the director of JDH Consulting, Mentone, Victoria, Australia. He has a BSc (Eng.) from the University of Southampton, UK, and a PhD from Monash University, Australia. He is the author of more than 400 papers and reports. He received the Senior Award (A.G. Davenport Medal) from the International Association for Wind Engineering in 2011. He has been involved in the determination of design wind loads for many structures and industrial facilities, as well as the writing of several Australian Standards, and is currently the chair of the Wind Loads Subcommittee for Australia and New Zealand.

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