Wind Loading of Structures  book cover
3rd Edition

Wind Loading of Structures

ISBN 9781138893979
Published July 26, 2017 by CRC Press
450 Pages 210 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

A Definitive Up-to-Date Reference

Wind forces from various types of extreme wind events continue to generate ever-increasing damage to buildings and other structures. Wind Loading of Structures, Third Edition fills an important gap as an information source for practicing and academic engineers alike, explaining the principles of wind loads on structures, including the relevant aspects of meteorology, bluff-body aerodynamics, probability and statistics, and structural dynamics.

Written in Line with International Standards

Among the unique features of the book are its broad view of the major international codes and standards, and information on the extreme wind climates of a large number of countries of the world. It is directed towards practicing (particularly structural) engineers, and academics and graduate students.

The main changes from the earlier editions are:

  • Discussion of potential global warming effects on extreme events
  • More discussion of tornados and tornado-generated damage
  • A rational approach to gust durations for structural design
  • Expanded considerations of wind-induced fatigue damage
  • Consideration of aeolian vibrations of suspended transmission lines
  • Expansion of the sections on the cross-wind response of tall slender structures
  • Simplified approaches to wind loads on "porous" industrial, mining, and oil/gas structures
  • A more general discussion of formats in wind codes and standards

Not dedicated to a specific code or standard, Wind Loading of Structures, Third Edition highlights the general format and procedures related to all major codes and standards, addresses structures of various types, and presents you with topics not typically covered in traditional texts such as internal pressures, fatigue damage by wind forces, and equivalent static wind load distributions.

Table of Contents

The nature of wind storms and wind-induced damage
Meteorological aspects
Types of wind storms
Wind damage
Wind-generated debris
Wind storm damage and loss prediction
Hurricane-damage modelling
Predicted effects of climate change
The following chapters and appendices
Prediction of design wind speeds and structural safety
Introduction and historical background
Principles of extreme value analysis
Extreme wind estimation by the Type I Distribution
The peaks-over-threshold approach
Parent wind distributions
Wind loads and structural safety
Wind load factors
Strong wind characteristics and turbulence
Mean wind speed profiles
Modification of wind flow by topography
Change of terrain
Weakening of a tropical cyclone after a coast crossing
Other sources
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
Flow around bluff bodies
Pressure and force coefficients
Flat plates and walls
Rectangular prismatic shapes
Circular cylinders
Fluctuating forces and pressures
Resonant dynamic response and effective static load distributions
Principles of dynamic response
The random vibration or spectral approach
Effective static loading distributions
Aeroelastic forces
Fatigue under wind loading
Internal pressures
Single windward opening
Multiple windward and leeward openings
Nominally sealed buildings
Modelling of internal pressures
Laboratory simulation of strong winds and wind loads
Wind-tunnel layouts
Simulation of the natural wind flow
Modelling of structures for wind effects
Measurement of local pressures
Modelling of overall loads and response of structures
Blockage effects and corrections
Computational wind engineering
Low-rise buildings
General characteristics of wind loads on low-rise buildings
Buildings with pitched roofs
Multi-span buildings
Effects of parapets on low-rise buildings
Effect of building length
Internal pressures
A case study: optimum shaping of a low-rise building
Wind-tunnel databases
Tall buildings
Flow around tall buildings
Cladding pressures
Overall loading and dynamic response
Combination of along- and cross-wind response
Torsional loading and response
Interference effects
Motion perception and acceleration criteria
Case studies
Large roofs and sports stadiums
Wind flow over large roofs
Arched and domed roofs
Effective static load distributions
Air-supported roofs
Wind-tunnel methods
Case studies
Towers, chimneys and masts
Basic drag coefficients for tower sections
Dynamic along-wind response of tall slender towers
Cross-wind response of tall slender towers
Cooling towers
Guyed masts
Wind turbine towers
Case studies
Basic force coefficients for bridges
The nature of dynamic response of long-span bridges
Wind-tunnel techniques
Vibration of bridge cables
Case studies
Transmission lines
Structural response and calculation of wind loads
Risk models for transmission line systems
Wind-induced vibrations of transmission lines
Other structures
Walls and hoardings
Free-standing roofs and canopies
Attachments to buildings
Lighting frames and luminaires
Industrial complexes and offshore platforms
Wind-loading codes and standards
General descriptions
Basic wind speeds or pressures
Modification factors on wind velocity
Building external pressures
Building internal pressures
Other shapes and sectional force coefficients
Dynamic response calculations
Inter-code comparisons
General comments and future developments
A: Terminology
B: List of symbols
Probability distributions relevant to wind engineering
Extreme wind climates - A world survey
E: Some approximate formulas for structural natural frequencies
F: Example of application of the LRC method for the effective static wind loads on a simple structure

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Dr. John D. Holmes is the director of JDH Consulting, Mentone, Victoria, Australia. He has a BSc (Eng.) from the University of Southampton, UK, and a PhD from Monash University, Australia. He is the author of more than 400 papers and reports. He received the Senior Award (A.G. Davenport Medal) from the International Association for Wind Engineering in 2011. He has been involved in the determination of design wind loads for many structures and industrial facilities, as well as the writing of several Australian Standards, and is currently the chair of the Wind Loads Subcommittee for Australia and New Zealand.


"This updated edition presents in a systematic and clear way the modern scientific knowledge and methods for wind loads, discusses wind engineering topics, addresses design issues and offers ample guidance for the effective treatment of wind load design. Overall, the book provides comprehensive guidance for practising structural engineers, in particular those designing structures where the design is dominated by wind-engineering considerations, as well as for students and researchers working with analogous wind-engineering themes in advanced university courses and research."
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

"The book gives a detailed, fundamental analysis of wind loading of structures and structural response. It clearly describes the mechanics of wind loading (including the types of windstorms) and the static and dynamic response of structures. This enables the designer to understand the process and makes it a useful design tool. With the application of the range of standards, it has worldwide application."
— Dr John Ginger, Cyclone Testing Station, James Cook University

"Holmes is an active and well-respected consultant in the field, and it is obvious that his book was written to fill the huge niche needed to treat real-world problems with wind loading on structures. For this reason it is also the first book I recommend to the many customers I have who—as practicing structural engineers not wind engineers—are in need of a comprehensive yet understandable reference text."
— Daryl Boggs, CPP, Inc.

" … provides in-depth information, and work examples where appropriate, on subjects of special interest, including internal pressure, wind-borne debris and associated damages, wind load effects on special and unusual structures, application of effective static wind load distribution, and comparison of advanced wind loading codes and standards. A unique feature of this book is that it is one of the very few books on wind engineering, if not the only book, that has undergone 2 extensive revisions, first in 2007 and then in 2014, to bring the content up to date with latest advances in knowledge. Furthermore, each chapter contains an exhaustive list of references, including the most recent publications, which is an extremely useful source of information for researchers and practitioners alike. … is an excellent book on wind loading of structures. I highly recommend this book by Dr John Holmes for use in graduate and senior undergraduates studies, structural engineering design against wind actions, and other design professional practices."
— Kenny Kwok, University of Western Sydney

"The book presents a complete and deep overview of the most important aspects of wind loading. It is easily read by people with a variety of engineering or technical backgrounds. Each chapter describes the state of the art and lists foundational and actual references."
— Ana Scarabino, Universidad Nacional de La Plata

"… a comprehensive and concise textbook for wind engineers … an excellent reference and textbook for graduate students, researchers and professionals."
— Guoqing Huang, Southwest Jiaotong University

"… a book with structure and martial suitable for wind engineering course text book as well as for professionals. The area of wind engineering covered and practical examples presented makes wind engineering principles to be easily understood by structural engineers."
— Seifu Bekele, Global Wind Technology Services (GWTS)

Praise for the second edition:
Wind Loading of Structures is a fine text for a wind engineering course and a useful reference for the practising wind engineer…. A must have for any wind engineer's library.
— Leighton Cochran, Past President, American Association for Wind Engineering

"The book provides comprehensive guidance for practising structural engineers … as well as for students and researchers working with analogous wind-engineering themes in advanced university courses and research."
—Charalampos Baniotopoulos, Structures and Buildings