X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Solid Surfaces
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This volume outlines the physical and methodical concepts of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) specifically for surface studies using both inner and valence electron levels. It discusses the theory and practice of XPS qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid state surfaces and provides lists of extended experimental and theoretical data necessary for the determination of concentration and thin film thicknesses. In addition it covers the many problems concerning in-depth profiling, ion sputtering rate and damages of the structure of altered layers, as well as applications of angular dependence of the intensities and photoelectron diffraction for surface studies. Also provided are the applications of XPS for the investigations of catalysts, adsorption, electronic surface states, oxydation of semi-conductors and alloys, minerals, including lunar regolith and natural gold, glasses, radiation damage, surface diffusion, polymers, etc.
Table of Contents
Preface CHAPTER 1. BINDING ENERGY OF INNER ELECTRONS AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS Physical principles and experimental techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Specimen charging and spectrum calibration Patterns in values and identification of chemical compounds Relationship of to effective atomic charge and other characteristics References CHAPTER 2. LINE INTENSITY AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Dependence of intensity of X-ray photoelectron lines on various factors Mean free path of photoelectrons in a solid Quantitative surface analysis of solids References CHAPTER 3. ION SPUTTERING AND IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS Factors influencing sputtering speed Influence of ion bombardment on concentration profile of elements under examination Ion sputtering and alloy analysis Changes in chemical compounds under the effect of ion sputtering References CHAPTER 4. STUDY OF ADSORPTION AND CATALYSTS X-ray photoelectron study of the adsorption of molecules on metals Application of the angular dependence of intensities in studying adsorbed molecules Study of catalysts References CHAPTER 5. STUDIES OF THE SURFACE AND PROCESSES ON THE SURFACE Surface electron states Binding energy differences between atoms in bulk and on the surface Study of corrosion and alloy oxidation Semiconductor surface oxidation Study of fracture surfaces and alloy ageing Study of glasses Analysis of the surface of minerals: flotation XPS analysis of lunar regolith Study of adhesion Study of radiation damage Study of diffusion References SUPPLEMENT