Professor Michael Fredholm is an historian and former military analyst who has published extensively on the history, defense strategies, security policies, and energy sector developments of Eurasia. He is the head of Research and Development at IRI in Stockholm. Affiliated to the Stockholm International Program for Central Asian Studies (SIPCAS), which originated at Stockholm University and from 2012 was based at the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, Michael Fredholm made a special study of Central Asian geopolitics, Afghanistan, Islamic extremism, and the causes of and defense strategies to counter terrorism. He has worked as an independent academic advisor to governmental, inter-governmental, and non-governmental bodies for more than two decades, including on Foreign Ministry official reports on Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, and failing states. Educated at Uppsala, Stockholm, and Lund Universities, Michael Fredholm taught at Stockholm University (South and Central Asia Program), Uppsala University (Orientalist Program), the Swedish Royal Military Academy and Defence University (various courses), and at a special educational and advisory program on East Asia for the Commander-in-Chief. He also lectured, during conferences or as visiting professor, at numerous institutions and universities in cities around the world including Ankara, Bishkek, Greifswald, Istanbul, The Hague, Kolkata, Krynica, Leuven, Madrid, New Delhi, Oslo, Shanghai, Srinagar, Stockholm, Tashkent, Tsukuba, Uppsala, Vienna, Vilnius, and Warsaw.