Free Resources

Taylor & Francis is excited to be able to offer free resources to help you discover and engage with topics across professional and academic communities.

From our highly respected brand Routledge as well as known branded series, Psychology Press, Eye On Education, and Focal Press, we bring you insights from expert authors and leading industry voices.

FreeBooks

A curated collection of existing AND new content around a specific subject, which provides you with valuable insight into a topic, a short solution, or helpful tips.

2017 FreeBooks

User Experience in the Library FreeBook

User Experience in the Library FreeBook

This FreeBook provides a clear introduction to human-centered design, ethnographic methods, information access and exchange, as well as the use of physical space in the library – all of which is in light of the User Experience (UX) in the library.

 Digital Ethnography in the Library

Digital Ethnography in the Library

This FreeBook provides a discussion on traditional usability work as a subset of ethnographic practices, providing a road to transforming institutional practices – all of which is in light of Digital Ethnography in the library.

 Digital Resources in the Library

Digital Resources in the Library

This FreeBook provides an exploration of the collective use of print and digital to style libraries as the key players in the academic world of the future, and the digital age – all of which is in light of Digital Resources in the Library.

The Economics of Health and Health Care: A Research Compilation

The Economics of Health and Health Care: A Research Compilation

We put together this FreeBook to complement the publication of the 8th edition of The Economics of Health and Health Care, the market-leading textbook covering all aspects of health economics. The six chapters included here focus on different elements of the field of health and health care economics, and range from the theoretical to the more practical. Our intention in selecting these chapters was to provide you with an overview of the work that's been done in this subject area over the past decade, highlight the breadth and depth of this field of study, and provide you with a research-rich resource to complement The Economics of Health and Health Care.

 MRCGP Revision Guide FreeBook

MRCGP Revision Guide FreeBook

This MRCGP Revision Guide FreeBook will be a valuable resource for students embarking upon their Medical degrees and those planning to undertake the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP), and will help students discover titles that will guide them throughout their studies.

Design Technologies in Landscape Architecture FreeBook

Design Technologies in Landscape Architecture FreeBook

This FreeBook brings together a collection of chapters on using digital tools in landscape architecture. Written by leading experts, the chapters showcase key topics such as fabrication, 3D modelling, responsive technologies and digital tools for BIM.

 Exploring Bioethics FreeBook

Exploring Bioethics

Presenting chapters from a range of our recent titles, this FreeBook offers a look at some of the current issues in the field of Bioethics.

AKI Frontiers FreeBook

AKI Frontiers

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalised patients with one million patients diagnosed annually in the United States alone. This FreeBook, published in partnership with the Royal Society of Medicine, presents chapters from our latest nephrology titles covering acute renal dysfunction, acid-base disturbance and electrolyte disorders and more.

 Pathways to Sustainable Agriculture

Pathways to Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture can help reduce the risks associated with a changing climate and growing human population. This FreeBook, published in partnership with the ESRC STEPS Centre, highlights some of the major findings that have emerged over the last decade.

Future Insight into Sepsis

Future Insight into Sepsis

Sepsis is a global healthcare problem and a condition that crosses all boundaries with worldwide infection related deaths estimated to still be around 8 million people p.a.. All clinicians and healthcare providers will encounter this during their practice. This FreeBook, published in partnership with the Royal Society of Medicine, contains a selection of chapters covering the fundamental basics of sepsis identification and management.

Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine is a FreeBook brought to you by CRC Press, containing a collection of selected chapters from four key titles, it is designed to help students achieve their full potential in their emergency medicine related studies. The FreeBook we have created for you provides a handy collection of chapters from a range of EM-related publications that have been selected based on their relevance and importance for the RCEM examinations.

RSM Aesthetics 9

RSM Aesthetics 9

Aesthetic medicine is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of medicine. This FreeBook, published in partnership with the Royal Society of Medicine, presents chapters from some of the latest books in the field covering fillers, lasers, cosmeceuticals and more.

Tips for Teaching Photography

Tips for Teaching Photography

We are delighted to announce a new Routledge | Focal Press FreeBook created specifically for current and future instructors in photography. Tips for Teaching Photography brings together key chapters from a selection of our textbooks written specifically to aid instructors in how best to engage and prepare students for a career in this field.

 Issues in Ethics

Issues in Ethics

Issues in Ethics explores current debates in Applied Ethics, from terrorism to human genetic engineering. Compiled from chapters taken from some of our recent publications in the field, this FreeBook offers you an insight into some of the most challenging discussions in the field.

Wellbeing in Perinatal Health FreeBook

Wellbeing in Perinatal Health FreeBook

Wellbeing and Perinatal Health is a FreeBook brought to you by Routledge, to help raise awareness about mental health and wellbeing during the perinatal period. It contains a collection of curated content from some of our top titles and leading experts.

New Directions in Social Work Practice FreeBook

New Directions in Social Work Practice FreeBook

New Directions in Social Work is a FreeBook brought to you by Routledge, covering key topics in social work. It contains a collection of curated content from some of our top titles and leading experts.

 Food as Medicine FreeBook

Food as Medicine FreeBook

This FreeBook, Food as Medicine, is relevant to healthcare professionals and consumers including nutritionists and dietitians. It discusses leading topics in food and diet as roles in medicine, such as: an introduction to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet; the link between nutrition and mental health; approaches to managing acne with food, nutrients and lifestyle; and the role of Vitamin D in metabolic syndrome.

2016 FreeBooks

Pre-Production Primer for Theatre FreeBook

Pre-Production Primer for Theatre FreeBook

This FreeBook compiles key chapters from The Art and Practice of Directing for Theatre, The Production Manager's Toolkit, The Stage Manager's Toolkit, and The Technical Director's Toolkit. These chapters provide introductory information, helpful tips, diagrams and templates across topics such as: technical direction, production management, rights and permissions, rehearsal schedules, and more.

 Shakespeare’s Language

Shakespeare’s Language

As tribute to William Shakespeare on the 400th anniversary of his death, we bring you this FreeBook which draws together a unique selection of Routledge content on Shakespeare's Language.

Religion and the Arts Freebook

Religion and the Arts FreeBook

This FreeBook showcases content from a small selection of our titles in the field of Religion and the Arts.

Religion and Politics FreeBook

Religion and Politics FreeBook

This curated collection brings together chapters from some of our recent titles in the field of Religion and Politics.

Religion in America FreeBook

Religion in America FreeBook

This collection introduces you to some of our key publications in the study of Religion in America.

Understanding Bullying: From School to the Workplace FreeBook

Understanding Bullying: From School to the Workplace FreeBook

Raise awareness, develop your understanding and help put a stop to bullying with a new FreeBook from Routledge and Bullying UK.

 Descriptosaurus Genre Writing Toolkit

Descriptosaurus Genre Writing Toolkit

To help you take your students’ writing to the next level, this FreeBook brings together a handpicked selection of Descriptosaurus story writing resources. Each chapter focuses on a different genre, which we’ve selected from Alison Wilcox’s latest Descriptosaurus writing guides.

To Conquer Fear is the Beginning of Wisdom: A Selection of Essays from Routledge Classics FreeBook

To Conquer Fear is the Beginning of Wisdom: A Selection of Essays from Routledge Classics

In support of the 2016 Being Human Festival, this FreeBook brings together a Routledge Classics collection of chapters on the festival’s theme – ‘Hope and Fear’ – written by some of the most significant writers of our time.

Alternative Processes: A Few Essentials FreeBook

Alternative Processes: A Few Essentials

Alternative Processes: A Few Essentials is a FreeBook brought to you by Routledge | Focal Press. It contains a collection of curated content from some of our top books on Alternative Process Photography.

Sound Production Today FreeBook

Sound Production Today FreeBook

This freebook is a one-stop shop for great sound engineering tips from some of today’s leading audio experts. Whether you are recording music or shooting live audio, you are bound to find some useful information within these pages.

Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law (Swansea Uni) FreeBook

Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law (Swansea Uni) FreeBook

Selected Work of the Members of the Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law (Swansea University) is a FreeBook brought to you by Routledge. It contains a collection of curated content from some of our top titles and leading experts.

Witchcraft and the Supernatural FreeBook

Witchcraft and the Supernatural

This resource brings together a selection of fascinating chapters from some of our leading books on witchcraft and the supernatural.

Study Skills FreeBook

Study Skills FreeBook

Providing free access to guidance and advice, this Study Skills FreeBook will help you to improve your study skills. Whether you are entering higher education for the first time, or returning to formal study after time in the workplace, you will learn how to get the most out of your time spent studying so you can get the best possible result.

A US Election Primer FreeBook

US Elections Textbook FreeBook

The chapters presented here cover topics of perennial interest and debate: The presidential nominating process, the primary season, the Electoral College, the role of the media, and getting out the vote.

Olympic and Paralympic Studies FreeBook

Olympic and Paralympic Studies FreeBook

This FreeBook brings together a collection of chapters from some of our most recent and most significant titles in Olympic and Paralympic Studies, written by leading experts and showcasing key themes, issues and perspectives.

The EU, Euroscepticism and Brexit FreeBook

The EU, Euroscepticism and Brexit

This collection of forthcoming and published Routledge material related to the approaching British EU membership referendum offers timely and expert commentary from academics and journalists on this crucial event.

Exploring Brain Injury: From Cause to Rehabilitation FreeBook

Exploring Brain Injury: From Cause to Rehabilitation

This FreeBook is aimed at those who have suffered a brain injury, their families and carers, and professionals who are involved in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

Reason Restored FreeBook

Reason Restored FreeBook

Reason Restored is taken from the new edition of Tamler Sommers’s brilliant book A Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the Curtain, 2nd Edition.

Shakespeare on Film FreeBook

Shakespeare on Film

23rd April 2016 marks the 400th anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare. The chapters selected for this FreeBook represent some of our publishing in the field of Shakespeare and Film.

Understanding Loris Malaguzzi FreeBook

Understanding Loris Malaguzzi: A Short Introduction To His Work And Legacy

Download your FreeBook for a unique insight into Loris Malaguzzi and the schools of Reggio Emilia. This carefully curated selection of chapters is ideal for educators, as well as educational researchers, who would like to extend their knowledge of this important figure in 20th century education. 

Japanese Culture and Society

Japanese Culture and Society

This FreeBook is a collection of chapters from key titles from our Japanese Studies range, all written by experts in their field on a variety of topics ranging from cuisine to religion.

Routledge Applied Linguistics

Routledge Applied Linguistics: A Compilation of Cutting Edge Research

This FreeBook contains selected chapters from four key titles that highlight and showcase the broad and interesting range of our publications within applied linguistics.

New Traditions in Public Administration FreeBook

New Traditions in Public Administration

A representative set of chapters from just seven of our recent publications unified around ASPA’s 2016 theme, ‘Reflecting on Challenges, Harnessing Opportunities’.

Essential Study Skills for Law Students

Essential Study Skills for Law Students

This FreeBook contains a collection of selected chapters from five key titles, designed to help students achieve their full potential in their Law degrees.

The Politics of Global Migration FreeBook

The Politics of Global Migration

This FreeBook covers topics of current interest and ongoing academic debate: the global governance of migration, trans-regionalism and nationalism, immigration control and policy, securing borders, the politicization of immigration, and national identity.

Exploring Themes in World History FreeBook

How to Use Global Themes in Your History Course

What are the benefits to approaching the study of history thematically? How can you choose the themes that work best for both students and instructors? Peter N. Stearns addresses these questions and more.

Identity in the Classical World FreeBook

Exploring Ancient Identity

Sign up for your free copy of  Identity in the Classical World to read new research and thoughtful questions surrounding the concept of identity in classical civilizations.

Prisons, Probation and Parole FreeBook

Prisons, Probation and Parole Freebook

As the U.S. prison system approaches meltdown, probation and parole continue to grow in importance and the effect of prisons to punish and rehabilitate are constantly evaluated and discussed. This FreeBook takes a deeper look.

Portraiture: a WPPI FreeBook

Portraiture: a WPPI FreeBook

This book pulls together skills and best practices from three Focal Press books, designed to introduce the wedding photographer to a broader range of photographic practice.

Exploring Peace FreeBook

Exploring Peace

The chapters presented in this FreeBook cover topics of current interest within the subject Peace Studies and Peacebuilding.

Change the Way You Feel FreeBook

Change the Way You Feel By Changing the Way You Think FreeBook

Feel happier, calmer, and gain the confidence to make changes that can help you live the life you want with a new FreeBook from Routledge and Guilford Press.

Managing the Money: Strategies for Mastering Filmmaking Finance

Managing the Money: Strategies for Mastering Filmmaking Finance

This FreeBook is a compilation of chapters from several Focal Press and American Film Market Presents books. Learn about film budgets and financing from some of the industry’s most prolific voices.

2015 FreeBooks

Terrorism Studies FreeBook

Terrorism Studies

This FreeBook discusses the complex and all too relevant issue of terrorism. It explores the causes and solutions as an important weapon in our fight against terrorism.

Sportscasting FreeBook

Sportscasting

Great for aspiring students and professionals looking to break into the field of television and radio sportscasting.

Perspectives on the United Nations FreeBook

Perspectives on the United Nations

This FreeBook features content on the roles and functions of international organisations of the UN, their origins, history and influence.

Climate Change Research FreeBook

Climate Change

Each of the four chapters within this FreeBook offers a different glimpse into the wide range of climate change research available.

Identity Transformations FreeBook

Identity Transformations

From the process of reinvention to the profound effects of new technologies, this FreeBook contains enlightening essays exploring themes surrounding identity.

Six Viewpoints on Aesthetics FreeBook

Aesthetics

The most recent research in Aesthetics, in honor of the 73rd meeting of the American Society for Aesthetics. 

A Further Look Behind the Lens FreeBook

Go behind "Behind the Lens" with author Jay Holben

Get A Further Look Behind the Lens, 11 chapters of new content not featured in Holben’s new title.

Dispute Resolution FreeBook

Dispute Resolution

This FreeBook provides a glimpse at the processes and techniques that legal systems around the globe use to provide dispute resolution to all types of parties.

Visible Learning FreeBook

Visible Learning

Know Thy Impact celebrates the launch of John Hattie's newest book by providing samples of his previous work on Visible Learning and a new introduction by the man himself.

Middle Eastern Politics FreeBook

Middle Eastern Politics

Politics in the Middle East can be complex. This FreeBook provides insight into a variety of issues, including Arab Spring and the Israeli-Arab conflict.

Literacy Intervention FreeBook

Literacy Intervention: Supporting Struggling Readers and Writers

To help teachers and school leaders, this FreeBook provides a handy compendium& of direct insights and practical advice, as well as an exclusive statement from the National Literacy Trust.

Environmental and Ecological Economics FreeBook

Environmental and Ecological Economics

Meant for professionals, scholars and students, this FreeBook showcases the range of titles published in these fields.

Becoming a Better Leader FreeBook

Becoming a Better Leader: Applying Key Strategies

Routledge and the ILA are pleased to present a FreeBook featuring an introduction by Ron Riggio and including original content from Michael Genovese, Michael Harvey and Al Bolea.

Entrepenurship for Managers FreeBook

Entrepreneurship for Managers

Students of entrepreneurship will benefit from the accessible, comprehensive approach taken by our expert authors, who explore topics ranging from bootstrapping to public policy.

Breastfeeding FreeBook

Challenges Women Face During Breastfeeding

To help health care workers, midwives, social workers and parents, this FreeBook provides a handy compendium of direct insights and practical advice.

Law and Society FreeBook

Insights into the Field of Sociolegal Studies in Law

The field of sociolegal studies draws on a wealth of different contexts and provides an exciting, interdisciplinary approach to the study of the law.

Essential Skills for Wellness FreeBook

Essential Skills for Wellness

In this FreeBook, you'll get the necessary skills to make decisions, relax, tame your stress, conquer your shyness and more!

Urban Design: Tools & Resources for the Planning Practitioner

Urban Design: Tools and Resources

Our aim in selecting the excerpts included here was to highlight some of our newest practitioner-oriented titles, and share the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable.

The Essential James Gee FreeBook

An Introduction to Discourse Analysis

Featuring a chapter from each of James Paul Gee's books with Routledge and curated by the author himself, this FreeBook addresses fundamental questions about language.

Ideas and Activities for Teaching Literacy FreeBook

Ideas and Activities for Teaching Literacy

Developing and improving literacy for primary-aged pupils is a key focus for many schools; teachers continue to look for new ideas or tips to support their literacy teaching practice.

The Theory and Practice of Online Teaching and Learning FreeBook

The Theory and Practice of Online Teaching and Learning

In spite of its growing popularity, teaching online remains largely uncharted territory for many educators.

Eating Disorders FreeBook

Eating Disorders: Coping with Everyday Challenges

A handy compendium of direct insights and practical advice for preventing and managing eating disorders to support sufferers and their loved ones.

Health & Wellness Tourism FreeBook

Health & Wellness Tourism Insights

This unique FreeBook examines the spa industry across geographical borders and throughout history, exploring questions relating to socio-economics, national identity, psychology, and more.

Exercises, Tips and Strategies for Self-Improvement FreeBook

Exercises, Tips and Strategies for Self-Improvement

With concrete tips and practical advice to make positive changes all year round, this book offers you the tools you need to address areas in which we could all benefit from a little help. 

Self-Promotion for Professional Photographers FreeBook

Self-Promotion for Professional Photographers

A quick and dirty guide to sharing and promoting your work online. Learn about how to connect with your followers and the larger photographic community. 

Making your Mark in the Recording Industry FreeBook

Making Your Mark in the Recording Industry - A Crash Course

In this collection of original material and excerpts from leading Focal Press titles and Creative Live videos you'll get an overview of a wide-range of crucial topics in audio and recording.

The Business of Show Business FreeBook

The Business of Show Business for Creatives

A thorough overview of the areas a filmmaker must take accountability and responsibility for in order to lead his/her team through the different phases of development.

Snapshots

Short and accessible, Snapshots are a quick look at an industry issue, solution, or information on a specific topic.

Current Snapshots

Snapshot: 5 Key Tips for Turning your PhD into a Successful Monograph

5 Key Tips for Turning Your PhD into a Successful Monograph

Some PhD theses make for excellent books, often providing a springboard for a successful academic career. However, it is important to remember that a book is a very different product from a thesis and not all good theses would make good books. The 5 key tips in this paper will help you assess and adapt your own work before presenting it to your publisher.

Snapshot: The visible library: 5 ways to see and be seen in your university community

The Visible Library: 5 Ways to See and Be Seen in Your University Community

Read these invaluable insights into how you can make the library more visible to your university communities.

Snapshot: Questions and Answers: 4 Key Takeaways from the T&F Charleston Library Conference Panel Q&A

Questions and Answers: 4 Key Takeaways from the T&F Charleston Library Conference Panel Q&A

Read about the real issues that librarians face as they work to advocate for themselves and their libraries as crucial aspects of the university community.

Snapshot: Designing Public Programs That Work

Designing Public Programs That Work

An exclusive snapshot for Public Administration professionals. Download now to learn how to design public programs that work!

Snapshot: Combatting Day-to-Day Stress: Six Strategies for Teachers

Combatting Day-to-Day Stress: Six Strategies for Teachers

These simple techniques will help teachers seize control of negative stresses, with an emphasis on our living, breathing – and no doubt tired – physical selves.

Snapshot: The Five New Imperatives for Educational Change

The Five New Imperatives for Educational Change

This Snapshot, based on Dennis Shirley's new book, The New Imperatives of Educational Change, outlines the five new imperatives that are driving change forward today and for the years to come, leading us towards achievement with integrity.

Snapshot: 5 Ways to Help a Loved one with an Eating Disorder

5 Ways to Help a Loved One with an Eating Disorder

This free paper by Gráinne Smith, author of Surviving Family Care Giving, offers advice and guidance on how to support a loved one with an eating disorder.

Snapshot: 5 Ways to Help Your Students Succeed on the PARCC and SBAC ELA Assessments

5 Ways to Help Your Students Succeed on the PARCC and SBAC ELA Assessments

To get students ready teachers can of course give practice tests. However, there are also some things that teachers can do throughout the year to give students the necessary skills to succeed.

Snapshot: 5 Key Tips for College Student Wellness

5 Key Tips for College Student Wellness

While no single strategy will guarantee a student’s success, it is clear that students benefit from having healthy attitudes and wellness skills.

Snapshot: Building Effective Home and Family Care-Giving

Building Effective Home and Family Care-Giving

Building Effective Home and Family Care-Giving: Communication, Collaboration, Coordination is a free white paper by Gráinne Smith, author of Surviving Family Care Giving.

Snapshot: Motivating Struggling Learners

Motivating Struggling Learners

Motivating struggling learners is a critical skill teachers need but it’s also an area educators struggle with. What can teachers do? Motivating Struggling Learners: Three Keys to Success is here to help you motivate your students! Brought to you by Routledge Eye on Education.

Routledge Topical Talks

Join our live events or watch our recorded sessions where we host a talk on a timely topic that features Routledge authors and discipline leaders sharing their opinions, research, and knowledge.

Current Topical Talks

Webinar on Reducing the Energy Demand of Buildings

How can we reduce the energy demand of buildings?

A reduction in the energy demand of buildings can make a major contribution to achieving national and international carbon reduction goals. This video establishes the link between built environment energy and climate change, and discusses how the built environment and sustainability sectors are addressing this increasingly important issue and what the long term solutions might be, and consider whether we are making enough progress.

Does punishment change behavior? Webinar

Does punishment change behavior?

As the U.S. prison system approaches meltdown, the need to evaluate correctional programs and policies has never been more important. This webinar explores the topic of punishment alongside other criminal sanctions like probation, parole, alternative sentencing, and community–based programs as a means of changing behavior. Specific examples are presented to show why a one-size-fits-all approach does not deliver the best results.

Drugs in Sport webinar

Drugs in Sport: Is doping an ethical and media issue that is causing a moral panic?

Drugs in Sport is still a contentious issue and has been increasingly prevalent in the media over recent years. But is doping as big of an issue as we are led to believe?

Landscape Design Webinar

Landscape Design: Can it actually improve health?

Three experts in the field, Christopher Coutts, Gayle Souter-Brown, and Catharine Ward Thompson, discuss the prime importance of landscape design on health and the ways that you can change this dynamic through effective design and specific interventions.

Achieving Your Potential As A Digital Photographer

Achieving Your Potential as a Digital Photographer

Watch a recording of the live webinar hosted by Harold Davis on December 5th 2014, based on his book “Achieving Your Potential As A Digital Photographer”.

White Papers

We are very proud to be sponsoring the creation of authoritative, researched papers that address questions and conversations that are happening in our communities.

Current White Papers

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Leading Across Cultures; Developing Leaders for Global Organisations

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Leading Across Cultures; Developing Leaders for Global Organisations

Download this essential White Paper and learn how your cultural influences impact your values and beliefs and consequently your behaviours and working practices, including leadership styles.

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Sustainable Leadership; Rewire Your Brain for Sustainable Success

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Sustainable Leadership; Rewire Your Brain for Sustainable Success

Download this essential White Paper to learn more about how you can become a more relevant and less obsolete leader and lead in a way that sustains rather than drains you and others. Perhaps you are a leader in an organisation.

White Paper: Creative, Evolving, Relevant: Communicating the Library’s Value

White Paper: Creative, Evolving, Relevant: Communicating the Library’s Value

This White Paper is the first of its kind from Taylor & Francis: Working in partnership to create an expanded perspective on our communities – sharing trends and themes that broaden the discussion and inspire new ideas.

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Developing Ethical Leaders

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Developing Ethical Leaders

The first White Paper in a new series on Transpersonal Leadership, clarifies what Ethical Leadership is and then explains its principles and practicalities, introducing a new principle for the 21st century.

White Paper: Mobile Learning in the UAE White Paper

White Paper: Mobile Learning in Tertiary Education in the United Arab Emirates

Mobile Learning in Tertiary Education in the UAE explores the implications of implementing mobile learning devices (MLDs) in major universities in the UAE.

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Women, Naturally Better Leaders for the 21st Century

Transpersonal Leadership White Paper Series: Women, Naturally Better Leaders for the 21st Century

Download this essential White Paper to learn more about why we need ethical leadership and how we develop ethical leaders utilizing the concepts of awareness and consciousness, within the context of three levels of intelligence that each have their own neural connection system.