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Accessible Content in Medicine

Medicine Examples

Example 1

An illustration shows the stem cells of different potency.
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An illustration shows the stem cells of different potency.

Long Description

The cells in the decreasing order of potency are as follows. Totipotent: Zygote. Pluripotent: I C M/E S cells, E G cells, E C cells, m G S cells, and i P S cells. Multipotent: Adult stem cells. Unipotent: Differentiated cells. Trans differentiation of unipotent cells produces different types of cells. Dedifferentiation of unipotent cells forms multipotent cells. Reprogramming of unipotent cells forms pluripotent cells.

Example 2

Microscope image of 6 myeloid colony formations. A. C F U E form small, scattered clusters. B. C F U G cells are granular and form a circular colony. C. C F U G M colonies are more scattered than C F U G and contain a mix of cells. D. B F U E form clusters of cells with ill-defined borders. E. C F U M colonies are similar to C F U G but are more scattered. F. C F U G E M M form a large colony of both granular cells and cells with ill-defined borders.
Caption

Myeloid colony formation in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors can be assayed for their ability to proliferate and differentiate using semi-solid media containing defined hematopoietic growth factors. Phase-contrast microscope images of hematopoietic colonies derived by the seeding of committed progenitors in semi-solid media containing a cocktail of myeloid cytokines. Abbreviations: (A) CFU-E, colony forming unit erythroid; (B) CFU-G, colony forming unit granulocyte; (C) CFU-GM, colony forming unit granulocyte-macrophage; (D) BFU-E, burst forming unit erythroid; (E) CFU-M, colony forming unit macrophage; and (F) CFU-GEMM, colony forming unit granulocyte-erythroid- megakaryocyte- macrophage. (From https://www.rndsystems. com/products/humanmethylcellulose- enriched-media_hsc005. With permission from Bio-Techne.)

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Microscope image of 6 myeloid colony formations. A. C F U E form small, scattered clusters. B. C F U G cells are granular and form a circular colony. C. C F U G M colonies are more scattered than C F U G and contain a mix of cells. D. B F U E form clusters of cells with ill-defined borders. E. C F U M colonies are similar to C F U G but are more scattered. F. C F U G E M M form a large colony of both granular cells and cells with ill-defined borders.

Example 3

A phylogenetic tree showing the major classes of molluscs.
Caption

An example of a hypothesis of relationships (i.e., a phylogenetic tree) of the major groups (classes) of molluscs. In this phylogeny, the aculiferan taxa are shown as unresolved, with a resolved Conchifera. Anatomical cartoons mostly redrawn and modified from Salvini-Plawen, L.V. and Steiner, G., Synapomorphies and plesiomorphies in higher classification of Mollusca, in Taylor, J.D. Ed., Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 29–51, 1996.

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A phylogenetic tree showing the major classes of molluscs.

Long Description

"In this phylogenetic tree, the different parts of the molluscs such as muscle, digestive gland, nerves and ganglia, mantle and foot, and so on are shown as color codes. Aculifera are classified into Polyplacophora, Caudofoveata, Solenogastres. Conchifera is classified into the following types: Monoplacophora, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Scaphopoda, Cephalopoda. "

Example 4

A schematic diagram showing the steps in humoral and cellular responses against an infection.
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Humoral and cellular responses involved in bivalve immune defence against infection by a unicellular parasite (the example shown is Perkinsus). ROS – Reactive Oxygen Species. Redrawn and modified from Soudant, P. et al., J. Invertebr. Pathol., 114, 196–216, 2013.

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A schematic diagram showing the steps in humoral and cellular responses against an infection.

Long Description

The following sequence of processes is used to counter an infection. Invading microorganisms activate humoral factors in the blood, protease inhibitors, lysosomal enzymes, and anti-microbial peptides. Granulocytes are brought into action, and result in chemotaxis, attraction and migration of granulocytes, or haemocytes, into infected tissues. This process is facilitated by lectins, including opsonins, agglutinins. The next steps can follow two possible pathways, either phagocytosis or encapsulation. Membrane-associated lectins are involved in phagocytosis and lead to the recognition and attachment of invading microorganisms by the granulocytes. Next, internalization of invader takes place in the phagosome. Granulocytes then produce lysosomal enzymes which attack invader in phagosome. The final step of phagocytosis involves the Intracellular degradation of invader in phagosome. Encapsulation occurs when the invaders are too large to be phagocytosed. During the process, granulocytes cluster and synthesise secretory granules which produce a polypeptide that forms a capsule around the invader. The capsule forms a covering around the cell containing the microorganisms. The final step involves the extra-cellular degradation of invading micro-organisms in the capsule by lysosomal enzymes and R O S.

Example 5

Top. An illustration, labeled monobranchiate and bipectinate conditions, shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of patelloida (patellogastropoda). Middle. An illustration labeled dibranchiate and bipectinate conditions shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of fissurellid (Vetigastropoda). Bottom. An illustration labeled monobranchiate and monopectinate conditions shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of Littorina (Caenogastropoda).
Caption

Some examples of gastropod ctenidia. Centre left figure redrawn and modified from Sasaki, T., Bull. Univ. Mus., 38, 1–223, 1998, arrows added from Yonge, C.M., Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. B, 232, 443–518, 1947 and transverse sections and top left figure also redrawn and modified from that publication.

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Top. An illustration, labeled monobranchiate and bipectinate conditions, shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of patelloida (patellogastropoda). Middle. An illustration labeled dibranchiate and bipectinate conditions shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of fissurellid (Vetigastropoda). Bottom. An illustration labeled monobranchiate and monopectinate conditions shows the respiratory functions inside the mantle cavity of Littorina (Caenogastropoda).

Long Description

Top. "On its left, the illustration shows a comb-like structure. Each tooth of this comb-like structure looks like a leaf divided by a thick midrib. The midrib-like structure is labeled “ctenidial axis.” Each side of the ctenidial axis represents a ctenidium. Each ctenidium has hair-like projections on its edges, which are labeled “frontal cilia” toward the afferent side. The ctenidial axis has colored ovals on its apex and base and base of the ctenidia, which represent afferent sinus and efferent sinus, respectively. Arrows representing water current pass through either side of the ctenidial axis and travel from the efferent side to the afferent side. Two sets of arrows representing cilial current enter from the efferent side, travel along the edges, and exit from the afferent side. On its right, the illustration shows a mantle cavity in which the ctenidia is positioned slightly to the left. The bottom left of the mantle cavity has a colored circle that represents the osphradium. Another colored circle is placed toward the right and on the roof of the mantle cavity, which represents the rectum. Arrows representing water current enter the mantle cavity from its left end (close to the osphradium), pass through either side of the ctenidial axis, and exit from its right end (below the rectum). Arrows representing cilial current travel along the edges of the ctenidia." Middle."On its left, the illustration shows a mantle cavity that has ctenidia on its left and right. On the roof of the mantle cavity are two sets of fish scale-like patterns that represent the hypobranchial glands. Between the two sets of hypobranchial glands but slightly below them is a colored circle that represents the rectum. The ctenidial axis has colored ovals on its apex and base that represent afferent sinus and efferent sinus, respectively. The ctenidial axis appears to be extended to house a colored oval in front of the afferent sinus. These colored ovals represent the osphradium. Arrows representing water current enter the mantle cavity from its edges close to the osphradium. On its right, the illustration shows a comb-like structure. Each tooth of this comb-like structure looks like a pointed triangular leaf divided by a thick midrib. At the apex, the leaflets are connected to an anchor-like structure. The midrib-like structure dividing the leaflets represents the ctenidial axis, which partially lies on the anchor-like structure. Each side of the ctenidial axis represents a ctenidium. The ctenidial axis has colored ovals on its apex and base that represent afferent sinus and efferent sinus, respectively. The ctenidia have hair-like projections on their edges, which are labeled “terminal cilia” toward the efferent side. A bone-like structure, which is labeled “skeletal rod,” starts near the afferent sinus and runs along the afferent edge of the ctenidia. Hair-like projections on the skeletal rod are labeled “lateral cilia.” A depression in the edges of the ctenidia close to the afferent sinus is labeled “bursicle.” The afferent and efferent sinus have differently colored parts on their ends, which represent retractor muscles. The afferent sinus shows an additional colored region on its tip, which represents the ctenidial nerve. Arrows representing water current pass through either side of the ctenidial axis and travel from the afferent side to the efferent side. Two sets of arrows representing cilial current enter from the afferent side, travel along the edges, and exit from the efferent side." Bottom. "On its left, the illustration shows a comb-like structure. Each tooth of this comb-like structure looks like a triangle, which represents the ctenidium. The base of the triangle has a cable-like structure, which represents the ctenidial axis. The ctenidial axis has colored ovals on its two ends that represent afferent sinus and efferent sinus, respectively. The ctenidia have hair-like projections on their edges. A bone-like structure, which is labeled “skeletal rod,” starts near the afferent sinus and runs along one edge of the ctenidium. The skeletal rod has hair-like projections. Arrows representing water current pass through the ctenidium and travel from the afferent side to the efferent side. Two sets of arrows representing cilial current enter from the afferent side, travel along the edges, and exit from the efferent side of the ctenidium. On its right, the illustration shows a mantle cavity that has a ctenidium on its left. On the roof of the mantle cavity are fish scale-like patterns that represent the hypobranchial glands. The hypobranchial glands start close to the ctenidium. At the end of the hypobranchial glands is a colored circle, which represents the rectum. Near the afferent side of the ctenidium, the mantle cavity has a colored oval, which represents the osphradium. Arrows representing water current enter the mantle cavity near the osphradium and exit near the rectum. Arrows representing cilial current travel along the roof and base of the mantle cavity."

Example 6

Measurements of a shell in lateral and top view.
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Shell measurements required for the derivation of the Raup (1962) four parameter model of shell coiling. Also see Table 3.1. Redrawn and modified from Lindberg, D.R., Malacol. Rev., 18, 1–8, 1985b.

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Measurements of a shell in lateral and top view.

Long Description

In the lateral view, the shell has a chamber and an aperture. The dimensions of the oval aperture are aperture 1 and aperture 2. The translation is the vertical distance from the center of the aperture to the top of the shell and the radius is the horizontal distance from the center of the aperture to the center of the chamber. The position of generating curves d 1 and d 2 are the distances from the center of the shell to the inner and outer walls of the shell. In the top view, the shell is a logarithmic spiral where the distances between the turnings increase from w 5, w 4, w 3, w 2, to whorl 1.

Example 7

An image shows a network of interactions between proteins.
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A small subset of the human protein interactome. Shown here is an early example, displaying a human protein interaction network with just 401 human proteins linked via 911 interactions. Orange, disease proteins (according to OMIM Morbid Map; NCBI); light blue, proteins with GO (gene ontology) annotation; yellow, proteins without GO and disease annotation. Interactions connecting the nodes are represented by color-coded lines according to their confidence scores: green, 3 quality points; blue, 4 quality points; red, 5 quality points; purple, 6 quality points. A human protein interactome published in 2014 charts a described ~14,000 binary protein–protein interactions and the full interactome can be expected to involve hundreds of thousands of interactions. That will not be easy to display! (From Stelzl U et al. [2005] Cell 122:957–968; PMID 16169070. With permission from Elsevier.)

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An image shows a network of interactions between proteins.

Long Description

The interactome shown in the image looks like a complex network of 900 differently colored lines that connect 401 differently colored ovals. Each oval represents a protein. The number of protein-protein connections in the image varies so much that some proteins are connected to just one other protein while there are others that are connected to more than 20 other proteins.