Mao Zedong and the Chinese Revolution


© 2008 – Routledge

1,936 pages

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9780415400541
pub: 2007-10-11
US Dollars$1210.00

About the Book

Academic interest in Mao Zedong’s role in the Chinese Revolution remains intense, as scholars and commentators continue to analyze his thinking and the history of the movement for clues about the Chinese model and its supposedly unique features. The debate about Mao’s career and influence is now enlivened by the consequences of the dramatic turn by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) away from the radical socialism he is said to represent and its granting of a far greater role to the market, though without shedding much of its political power.

Collections of primary sources on Mao Zedong and CCP history, written by the communists themselves, are readily available but informed scholarship is indispensable to explain these sources and to put them in proper perspective. What were Mao’s objectives? Were they consistent? In what ways did Mao manipulate the CCP and the state to his own political ends? To what extent did his political vision dominate Chinese politics in the revolutionary years and after 1949? And where is Chinese communism now headed?

This new major work will help to identify some of the answers. Bringing together the best scholarship, reportage, and other materials, the collection includes the following:

  • scholarly studies by Westerners on Mao’s life and work, including wide-ranging studies of Mao’s political career as a whole
  • psychological studies
  • studies on his role in the urban years, the rural period, the Japanese War, the Civil War, the 1950s, the deepening of the revolution under the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, and the final years
  • specialist essays on his views on topics such as philosophy, literature, economics, and the Soviet Union
  • studies on his interpretation of Marxism
  • assessments of his role in the Chinese Revolution by Soviet China watchers.

Comprehensively indexed and with an introduction newly written by the editor, a leading expert in the field, Mao Zedong and the Chinese Revolution is a vital reference resource for all scholars and students of Chinese communism.

Table of Contents

Volume I: Policies and Strategies, 1919–49

Part 1: Mao, the Peasants, and the Workers

1. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Mao Tse-tung and Secret Societies’, China Quarterly, no. 27 (July 1966), pp. 1–13.

2. Philip C. C. Huang, ‘Mao Tse-tung and the Middle Peasants, 1925–1928’, Modern China, vol. 1, no. 3 (July 1975), pp. 271–96.

3. Nick Knight, ‘Mao Zedong and the Peasants: Class and Power in the Formation of a Revolutionary Strategy’, China Report, Vol. 40, No. 1 (2004), pp. 49-76.

4. Lynda Shaffer, ‘Mao Ze-dong and the October 1922 Changsha Construction Workers’ Strike: Marxism in Preindustrial China’, Modern China, vol. 4, no. 4 (Oct. 1978), pp. 379–418.

Part 2: People’s War

5. Francis F. Fuller, ‘Mao Tse-tung: Military Thinker’, Military Affairs, vol. 22, no. 3 (Autumn 1958), pp. 139–45.

6. Stuart R. Schram, ‘On the Nature of Mao Tse-tung’s "Deviation" in 1927’, China Quarterly, no. 18 (Apr. 1964), pp. 55–66.

7. John Morgan Dederer, ‘Making Bricks Without Straw: Nathanael Greene’s Southern Campaigns and Mao Tse-tung’s Mobile War’, Military Affairs, vol. 47, no. 3 (Oct. 1983), pp. 115–21.

Part 3: Mao and the World

8. Michael H. Hunt, ‘The Genesis of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy: Mao Zedong Takes Command, 1935–1949’, The Woodrow Wilson Center Asia Program, Occasional Paper no. 42, 29 May 1991.

9. He Di, ‘The Most Respected Enemy: Mao Zedong’s Perceptions of the United States, China Quarterly, no. 137 (Mar. 1994), pp. 144–58.

10. Liu Jianping, ‘Mao Zedong’s Perception of America and the Formation of New China’s International Strategy of Leaning to One Side’, Social Sciences in China: A Quarterly Journal, vol. 21, no. 3 (Autumn 2000), pp. 100–11.

Part 4: Mao and Liu Shaoqi, 1939–1949

11. Kenneth Lieberthal, ‘Mao Versus Liu? Policy Towards Industry and Commerce, 1946–49’, China Quarterly, no. 47 (July 1971), pp. 494–520.

12. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Mao Tse-tung and Liu Shao-ch’i, 1939–1969’, Asian Survey, vol. 12, no. 4 (Apr. 1972), pp. 275–93.

13. Tanaka Kyoko, ‘Mao and Liu in the 1947 Land Reform: Allies or Disputants?’, China Quarterly, no. 75 (Sept. 1978), pp. 566–93.

Part 5: Mao and the Anti-Japanese United Front

14. Gregor Benton, ‘The Second Wang Ming Line, 1935–38’, China Quarterly, no. 61 (Mar. 1975), pp. 61–94.

15. Shum Kui Kwong and Gregor Benton, ‘The Second Wang Ming Line, 1935–38’, Comment and Reply, China Quarterly, no. 69 (Mar. 1977), pp. 136–54.

16. Michael M. Sheng, ‘Mao, Stalin, and the Formation of the Anti-Japanese United Front: 1935–37’, China Quarterly, no. 129 (Mar. 1992), pp. 149–70.

17. John W. Garver, ‘Comment: Mao, the Comintern and the Second United Front’, China Quarterly, no. 129 (Mar. 1992), pp. 171–9.

Part 6: Mao and the Wartime Base-Area Economy

18. Andrew Watson, Mao Zedong and the Political Economy of the Border Region: A Translation of Mao’s Economic and Financial Problems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), pp. 1–55.

Volume II: Policies and Strategies, 1949–76

Part 1: Economics

19. Richard Levy, ‘New Light on Mao 2: His Views on the Soviet Union’s Political Economy’, China Quarterly, no. 61 (Mar. 1975), pp. 95–117.

20. Mark Selden, ‘Mao Zedong and the Political Economy of Chinese Development’, China Report, vol. 24, no. 2 (1988), pp. 125–39.

Part 2: Exercising Power

21. Michel C. Oksenberg, ‘Policy Making under Mao Tse-tung, 1949–1968’, Comparative Politics, vol. 3, no. 3 (Apr. 1971), pp. 323–60.

22. Frederick C. Teiwes, ‘Mao and His Lieutenants’, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, nos. 19–20 (Jan. 1988), pp. 5–56, 72–80.

Part 3: The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution

23. John Bryan Starr, ‘Conceptual Foundations of Mao Tse-tung’s Theory of Continuous Revolution’, Asian Survey, vol. 11, no. 6 (June 1971), pp. 610–28.

24. Hong Yung Lee, ‘Mao’s Strategy for Revolutionary Change: A Case Study of the Cultural Revolution’, China Quarterly, no. 77 (Mar. 1977), pp. 50–73.

25. Tang Tsou, ‘Mao Tse-tung, the Last Struggle for Succession, and the Post-Mao Era’, China Quarterly, no. 71 (Sept. 1977), pp. 498–527.

26. Brantly Womack, ‘Where Mao Went Wrong: Epistemology and Ideology in Mao’s Leftist Politics’, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 16 (July 1986), pp. 23–40.

27. Nick Knight, ‘From Harmony to Struggle, from Perpetual Peace to Cultural Revolution: Changing Futures in Mao Zedong’s Thought’, China Information, vol. 11, nos. 2–3 (Autumn 1996), pp. 176–95.

28. A. James Gregor and Maria Hsia Chang, ‘Anti-Confucianism: Mao’s Last Campaign’, Asian Survey, vol. 19, no. 11 (Nov. 1979), pp. 1073–92.

29. Stephan R. Landsberger, ‘Mao as the Kitchen God: Religious Aspects of the Mao Cult During the Cultural Revolution’, China Information, vol. 11, nos. 2–3 (Autumn 1996), pp. 196–211.

30. Robert Benewick, ‘Icons of Power: Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution’, in Harriet Evans and Stephanie Donald (eds.), Picturing Power in the People’s Republic of China: Posters of the Cultural Revolution (Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield, 1999), pp. 123–37.

Part 4: International Issues

31. Justuf M. van der Kroef, ‘Lenin, Mao and Aidit’, China Quarterly, no. 10 (Apr. 1962), pp. 23–44.

32. Tang Tsou and Morton H. Halperin, ‘Mao Tse-tung’s Revolutionary Strategy and Peking’s International Behavior’, American Political Science Review, vol. 59, no. 1 (Mar. 1965), pp. 80–99.

33. Donald S. Zagoria, ‘Mao’s Role in the Sino-Soviet Conflict’, Pacific Affairs, vol. 47, no. 2 (Summer 1974), pp. 139–53.

34. John Gittings, ‘New Light on Mao 1: His View of the World’, China Quarterly, no. 62 (Dec. 1974), pp. 750–66.

35. Yang Ho-min, ‘Mao Zedong’s Ideological Influence on Pyongyang and Hanoi: Some Historical Roots Reconsidered’, in Robert A. Scalapino and Dalchoong Kim (eds.), Asian Communism: Continuity and Transition (Korea Research Monograph 15, Center for Korean Studies, 1980), pp. 37–71.

36. John W. Garver, ‘The Opportunity Costs of Mao’s Foreign Policy Choices’, China Journal, no. 49 (Jan. 2003), pp. 127–36.

37. Chen Jian, ‘A Response: How to Pursue a Critical History of Mao’s Foreign Policy’, China Journal, no. 49 (Jan. 2003), pp. 137–42.

Volume III: Marxism, Politics, and Culture

Part 1: Mao before Maoism

38. Roxane Witke, ‘Mao Tse-tung, Women and Suicide in the May Fourth Era’, China Quarterly, no. 31 (July 1967), pp. 128–47.

39. Robert A. Scalapino, ‘The Evolution of a Young Revolutionary: Mao Zedong in 1919–1921’, Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 42, no. 1 (Nov. 1982), pp. 29–61.

40. Brantly Womack, ‘Mao before Maoism’, China Journal, no. 46 (July 2001), pp. 95–117.

Part 2: Chinese Marxism

41. Nigel Todd, ‘Ideological Superstructure in Gramsci and Mao Tse-tung’, Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 35, no. 1 (Jan. 1974), pp. 148–56.

42. Maurice Meisner, ‘The Advantages and Burdens of Backwardness: Some Reflections on Maoism and Marxism at the Close of the Maoist Era’, Asian Thought and Society, vol. II, no. 1 (Apr. 1977), pp. 40–53.

43. J. W. Freiberg, ‘The Dialectic in China: Maoist and Daoist’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan. 1977), pp. 2–18.

44. Joseph W. Esherick, ‘On the "Restoration of Capitalism": Mao and Marxist Theory’, Modern China, vol. 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1979), pp. 41–77.

45. Raymond F. Wylie, ‘Mao Tse-tung, Ch’en Po-ta and the "Sinification of Marxism"’, 1936–38’, China Quarterly, no. 79 (Sept. 1979), pp. 447–80.

46. Mark Selden, ‘Karl Marx, Mao Ze-dong, and the Dialectics of Socialist Development’, Modern China, vol. 3, no. 4 (Oct. 1977), pp. 407–17.

47. Nick Knight, ‘The Role of Philosopher to the Chinese Communist Movement: Ai Siqi, Mao Zedong and Marxist Philosophy in China’, Asian Studies Review, vol. 26, no. 4 (Dec. 2002), pp. 419–45.

Part 3: Political Theory

48. Robert E. Bedeski, ‘The Concept of the State: Sun Yat-sen and Mao Tse-tung’, China Quarterly, no. 70 (June 1977), pp. 338–54.

49. James R. Townsend, ‘Chinese Populism and the Legacy of Mao Tse-tung’, Asian Survey, vol. 17, no. 11 (Nov. 1977), pp. 1003–15.

Part 4: Political Style

50. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Chinese and Leninist Components in the Personality of Mao Tse-tung’, Asian Survey, vol. 3, no. 6 (June 1963), pp. 259–73.

51. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Mao Tse-tung as a Charismatic Leader’, Asian Survey, vol. 7, no. 6 (June 1967), pp. 383–8.

52. Lucian W. Pye, ‘Mao Tse-tung’s Leadership Style’, Political Science Quarterly, vol. 91, no. 2 (Summer 1976), pp. 219–35.

53. Chalmers Johnson, ‘Pregnant with "Meaning!": Mao and the Revolutionary Ascetic’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 7, no. 3 (Winter 1977), pp. 499–508.

54. Wang Gungwu, ‘The Chinese in Mao Tse-tung’, in Wang Gungwu (ed.), The Chineseness of China: Selected Essays (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 261–82, 332–3.

Part 5: Literature

55. Yong-sang Ng, ‘The Poetry of Mao Tse-tung’, China Quarterly, no. 13, (Jan. 1963), pp. 60–73.

56. Howard L. Boorman, ‘The Literary World of Mao Tse-tung’, China Quarterly, no. 13 (Jan. 1963), pp. 15–38.

57. C. N. Tay, ‘Two Poems of Mao Tse-tung in the Light of Chinese Literary Tradition’, Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 29, no. 3 (May 1970), pp. 633–55.

58. Bonnie S. McDougall, ‘The Yan’an "Talks" as Literary Theory’, Mao Zedong’s ‘Talks at the Yan’an Conference on Literature and Art’: A Translation of the 1943 Text with Commentary (Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1980), pp. 3–54.

Volume IV: Views, Sketches, and Assessments of Mao

Part 1: Soviet Views

59. Philip Bridgham, Arthur Cohen, and Leonard Jaffe, ‘Mao’s Road and Sino-Soviet Relations: A View from Washington, 1953’, China Quarterly, no. 52, (Oct. 1972), pp. 670–98.

60. Fedor Burlatsky, Mao Tse-tung: An Ideological and Psychological Portrait (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1980), pp. 218–42.

Part 2: Sketches and Recollections

61. Frederick C. Teiwes, ‘Seeking the Historical Mao’, China Quarterly, no. 145 (Mar. 1996), pp. 176–88.

62. Michael Loewe, ‘Let the Present Serve the Past’, Modern Asian Studies 31, no. 1 (Feb. 1997), pp. 209–15.

Part 3: Chinese Assessments

63. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Chairman Hua Edits Mao’s Literary Heritage: "On the 10 Great Relationships"’, China Quarterly, no. 68 (Mar. 1977), pp. 126–35.

64. ‘On Question of Party History—Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China (Adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on 27 June 1981)’, Beijing Review, no. 27 (1981), pp. xx–xxx.

65. Thomas Scharping, ‘Review Essay: The Man, the Myth, the Message—New Trends in Mao-Literature From China’, China Quarterly, no. 137 (Mar. 1994), pp. 168–79.

66. Geremie R. Barmé, ‘Editor’s Introduction’, Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader, Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 28 (1995), pp. 5–32.

67. ‘Mao Zedong Forever Our Leader’, Monthly Review website, Jan. 2005 (

Part 4: Western Assessments

68. Howard L. Boorman, ‘Mao Tse-tung as Historian’, China Quarterly, no. 28 (Oct. 1966), pp. 82–105.

69. Michel Oksenberg, ‘Mao’s Policy Commitments, 1921–1976’, Problems of Communism, vol. 25 (Nov. 1976), pp. 1–26.

70. Lowell Dittmer, ‘The Legacy of Mao Zedong’, Asian Survey, vol. 20, no. 5 (May 1980), pp. 552–73.

71. Stuart R. Schram, Mao Zedong: A Preliminary Reassessment (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1983), pp. 5–22, 29–51, 59–82.

72. Nick Knight, ‘Mao and History: Who Judges and How?’, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 13 (Jan. 1985), pp. 121–36.

73. Lowell Dittmer, ‘Mao and the Politics of Revolutionary Mortality’, Asian Survey, vol. 27, no. 3 (Mar. 1987), pp. 316–39.

74. Jean C. Robinson, ‘Mao after Death: Charisma and Political Legitimacy’, Asian Survey, no. 28, no. 3 (Mar. 1988), pp. 353–68.

75. Stuart R. Schram, ‘Mao Zedong a Hundred Years On: The Legacy of a Ruler’, China Quarterly, no. 137 (Mar. 1994), pp. 125–43.

76. Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, ‘Mao Matters: A Review Essay’, China Review International, vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 1996), pp. 1–21.

77. Jack Gray, ‘Mao in Perspective’, China Quarterly, no. 187 (Sept. 2006), pp. 659–79.

78. Delia Davin, ‘Dark Tales of Mao the Merciless’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 12 Aug. 2005.

79. Andrew Nathan, ‘Jade and Plastic’, London Review of Books, 17 Nov. 2005.

80. Gregor Benton and Steve Tsang, Timothy Cheek, Lowell Dittmer, and Geremie Barmé, ‘Mao: The Unknown Story—An Assessment’, China Journal, no. 55 (Jan. 2006), pp. 97–139.

81. Alfred L. Chan, ‘Mao: A Super Monster?’, Pacific Affairs, vol. 79, no. 1 (Spring 2006), pp. 97–103.

About the Series

Critical Concepts in Asian Studies

The Critical Concepts in Asian Studies series covers a number of areas of interest to students and scholars of this popular field. The series includes titles within Asian History, Asian Politics and Asian Culture. The two newest titles in the series cover the Social Tranformation in China, as well as the issues surrounding gender in historical and contemporary Japan.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / Asia / China
POLITICAL SCIENCE / History & Theory
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Ethnic Studies / General