The term ‘fundamentalism’ carries a wide range of meanings, some of them pejorative. Here it is used to refer to what the French call ‘integrism’, meaning a religious code which encompasses and governs with its prescriptions the entire private and public life of individuals and the collectivity. The prime examples in the contemporary world are Muslim renewal; Christian evangelical and charismatic churches, sects, and tendencies; and Ultra-Orthodox Judaism.
These three varieties of movement represent radical departures from the traditions out of which they have grown. These new forms can be characterized in terms of their ability to plug into local cultural practices and incorporate them without theorizing; ability to provide a framework for coping with serious social ills among the marginalized; ability to create transcultural communities of individuals without regard to prior political, linguistic, or ethnic frontiers; obsessive attention to the control of sexuality, especially female; belief in the literal truth of every word in the holy text; and their emphasis on conversion as a crisis and rupture in the life of individuals.
Even in its early days, Pentecostalism was a multicultural, multi-ethnic movement, drawing on black Americans, and the Mexican, European, and Asian migrant communities in America for its following. Today, in some countries (such as Nigeria and Ghana) the appeal seems to be more to the middle-class groups, while in others, such as in Latin America and the Philippines, it is most successful among the urban poor and among indigenous peoples, and represents a profound change after five centuries of a virtual Catholic monopoly.
In Islam and Judaism an erudite strand of learning has co-existed with a proliferation of healers and seers. Modern Jewish fundamentalists are however overwhelmingly focused on texts, and although their heritage in Eastern Europe has a strong element of ecstatic prayer, that has tended to take second place in the post-Holocaust era to an institutionalization of learning. In Islam, likewise, the renewal movements, led usually by lay people rather than clergy (except in Iran), focus on the text of the Qur’an and are hostile to mystical heritage embodied by Sufism.
This new, four-volume collection from Routledge makes available a range of materials which represent: (a) the most important recent analytical and descriptive contributions to the subject; (b) some doctrinal and historical texts; and (c) a representative coverage of the subject by theme and geographical area. It is sure to be welcomed by scholars and students as an indispensable resource for reference and research.
Issues of Definition, General Theories, and Historical Context
1. S. N. Eisenstadt, ‘Fundamentalism as a Modern Jacobin Anti-Modern Utopia and Heterodoxy: The Totalistic Reconstruction of Tradition’, Fundamentalism, Sectarianism and Revolution: The Jacobin Dimension of Modernity (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 82–118.
2. S. P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (Simon and Schuster, 1996), pp. 209–18.
3. D. Lehmann, ‘Fundamentalism and Globalism’, Third World Quarterly, 1998, 19, 4, 607–34.
4. R. S. Appleby, ‘History in the Fundamentalist Imagination’, Journal of American History, 2002, 89, 2, 498–511.
5. N. R. Keddie, ‘The New Religious Politics: Where, When, and Why Do "Fundamentalisms" Appear?’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1998, 40, 4, 696–723.
6. David Martin, Pentecostals: The World Their Parish (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 1–27.
7. L. R. Iannaccone, ‘Why Strict Churches Are Strong’, American Journal of Sociology, 1994, 99, 5, 1180–211.
8. S. Harding, ‘Representing Fundamentalism: The Problem of the Repugnant Cultural Other’, Social Research, 1991, 58, 2, 373–93.
9. Edmund Burke, ‘Islam and Social Movements: Methodological Reflections’, in Burke and Ira Lapidus (eds.), Islam, Politics and Social Movements (I. B. Tauris, 1988).
10. M. Riesebrodt, ‘Fundamentalism and the Resurgence of Religion’, Numen, 2000, 47, 3, 266–87.
11. J. Barr, Fundamentalism (Westminster Press, 1978), pp. 11–39.
12. J. Comaroff and J. L. Comaroff ‘Millennial Capitalism: First Thoughts on a Second Coming’, Public Culture, 2000, 12, 2, 291–343.
13. H. Soloveitchik, ‘Rupture and Reconstruction: The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy’, Tradition, 1994, 28, 4, 64–130.
14. S. Mahmood, ‘Feminist Theory, Embodiment, and the Docile Agent: Some Reflections on the Egyptian Islamic Revival’, Cultural Anthropology, 2001, 6, 2, 202–36.
15. H. Iqtidar, ‘Islamism and Colonial Secularism: A Relationship of Creativity?’, in Gareth Stedman-Jones and Ira Katznelson (eds.), Religion and the Political Imagination (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
16. R. Euben, ‘Premodern, Antimodern, or Postmodern? Islamic and Western Critiques of Modernity’, Review of Politics, 1997, 59, 429–59.
Fundamentalism, Modernity, and Globalization
17. J. Comaroff, ‘The Politics of Conviction: Faith on the Neo-liberal Frontier’, Social Analysis, 2009, 53, 1, 17–38.
18. S. Dein, ‘Lubavitch: A Contemporary Messianic Movement’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 1997, 12, 2, 191–204.
19. Peter Mandaville, ‘Globalization and the Politics of Religious Knowledge: Pluralizing Authority in the Muslim World’, Theory, Culture & Society, 2007, 24, 101–15.
20. Benjamin Soares, ‘Islam in Mali in the Neo-Liberal Era’, African Affairs, 2006, 105, 77–95.
21. Veronique Altglas, ‘The Global Diffusion and Westernization of Neo-Hindu Movements: Siddha Yoga and Sivananda Centres’, Religions of South Asia, 2007, 1, 2, 217–37.
22. M. Friedman, ‘Life Tradition and Book Tradition in the Development of Ultra-Orthodox Judaism: Judaism Viewed from Within and from Without’, Anthropological Studies (SUNY Press, 1986), pp. 235–55.
23. N. Stadler et al. ‘Fundamentalism’s Encounters with Citizenship: The Haredim in Israel’, Citizenship Studies, 2008, 12, 3, 215–31.
24. A. Bayat, ‘Revolution Without Movement, Movement Without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1998, 40, 1, 136–69.
25. B. Metcalf, ‘Madrasa at Deoband: Model for Religious-Education in Modern India’, Modern Asian Studies, 1978, 12, 111–34.
26. H. Iqtidar, ‘Muslim Cosmopolitanism: Contemporary Practice and Social Theory’, in Bryan Turner (ed.), Handbook of Globalization (Taylor & Francis, 2009), pp. 622–34.
27. C. Hirschkind, ‘The Ethics of Listening: Cassette-Sermon Audition in Contemporary Egypt’, American Ethnologist, 2001, 28, 3, 623–49.
28. Asifa Quraishi, ‘Interpreting the Qur’an and the Constitution: Similarities in the Use of Text, Tradition, and Reason in Islamic and American Jurisprudence’, Cardozo Law Review, 2006–7, 28, 67, 67–121.
29. D. Rudnyckyj, ‘Spiritual Economies: Islam and Neoliberalism in Contemporary Indonesia’, Cultural Anthropology, 2009, 24, 1, 104–41.
30. Tanika Sarkar, ‘Women’s Agency Within Authoritarian Communalism: The Rashtasevika Samiti and Rajanmabhoomi’, in Gyanendra Pandey (ed.), Hindus and Others: The Question of Identity in India Today (Viking, 1993), pp. 24–45.
31. A. Jamal, ‘Feminist "Selves" and Feminism’s "Others": Feminist Representations of Jamaat-e-Islami Women in Pakistan’, Feminist Review, 2005, 81, 52–73.
Charismatic and Conversion Movements
32. Mary Jo Neitze, ‘The Charismatic Renewal and the Culture of Narcissism’, Charisma and Community: A Study of Religious Commitment Within the Charismatic Renewal (Transaction Books, 1987), pp. 225–48.
33. R. Hood et al., Fundamentalism Among Serpent-Handling Sects: The Psychology of Religious Fundamentalism (Guilford Press, 2005), pp. 115–32.
34. C.-Y. Kao, ‘The Cultural Revolution and the Emergence of Pentecostal-style Protestantism in China’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 2009, 24, 2, 171–88.
35. C. G. Navarro, ‘The Socialization of the Gifts of Tongues and Healing in Mexican Pentecostalism’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 1998, 13, 3, 383–93.
36. A. Horstmann, ‘The Tablighi Jama’at, Transnational Islam, and the Transformation of the Self Between Southern Thailand and South Asia’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 2009, 29, 3, 27–40.
37. S. Hunt and N. Lightly, ‘The British Black Pentecostal "Revival": Identity and Belief in the "New" Nigerian Churches’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2001, 24, 1, 104–24.
38. P. Gay y Blanco, ‘Gypsy/Roma Diasporas: A Comparative Perspective’, Social Anthropology, 2002, 10, 2, 173–88.
39. J. Burdick, ‘Why is the Black Evangelical Movement Growing in Brazil?’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 2005, 37, 2, 311–32.
40. C. Gros, ‘Evangelical Protestantism and Indigenous Populations’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 1999, 18, 2, 175–98.
41. D. Maxwell, ‘African Gifts of the Spirit: Fundamentalism and the Rise of the Born-Again Movement in Africa’, in M. Percy and I. Jones (eds.), Fundamentalism: Church and Society (SPCK, 2001), pp. 160–82.
42. B. Meyer, ‘"Make a Complete Break With the Past": Memory and Post-Colonial Modernity in Ghanaian Pentecostalist Discourse’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 1998, 28, 3, 316–49.
43. R. Marshall-Fratani, ‘Mediating the Global and the Local in Nigerian Pentecostalism’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 1998, 28, 3, 278–315.
44. P. Freston, ‘The Universal Church of the Kingdom of God: A Brazilian Church Finds Success in Southern Africa’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 2005, 35, 33–65.
45. H. Englund, ‘Pentecostalism Beyond Belief: Trust and Democracy in a Malawian Township’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 2007, 77, 4, 477–99.
46. Mohammed Khalid Masud, ‘The Growth and Development of Tablighi Jamaat in India’, in Khalid Masud (ed.), Travellers in Faith: Studies of the Tablighi Jama’at as a Transnational Islamic Movement for Faith Renewal (Brill, 2000), pp. 79–107.
47. S. Huq and S. F. Rashid, ‘Refashioning Islam: Elite Women and Piety in Bangladesh’, Contemporary Islam, 2008, 2, 7–22.
Fundamentalism, Politics, and Everyday Life
48. A. Bayat, ‘Islamism and the Politics of Fun’, Public Culture, 2007, 19, 3, 433–59.
49. E. Berman, ‘Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist’s View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2000, 115, 3, 905–53.
50. D. Lehmann and B. Siebzehner, ‘Power, Boundaries and Institutions: Marriage in Ultra-Orthodox Judaism’, European Journal of Sociology, 2009, 50, 2, 273–308.
51. A. Brasil Fonseca, ‘Evangelicals and Democracy in Brazil: A Study of the Leading Politicians’, in P. Freston (ed.), Evangelicals and Democracy in Latin America (OUP, 2008), pp. 163–206.
52. E. Sprinzak, ‘Three Models of Religious Violence: The Case of Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel’, in M. Marty and R. S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalism and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies and Militance (Chicago University Press, 1993), pp. 462–90.
53. S. Atran, ‘Genesis and the Future of Suicide Terrorism’, Science, 2003, 299, 5612, 1534–9.
54. H. Iqtidar, ‘Terrorism and Islamism: Differences, Dynamics and Dilemmas’, Global Business and Economic Review, 2008, 10, 2.
55. Tanya Telfair Sharpe, ‘The Identity Christian Movement: Ideology of Domestic Terrorism’, Journal of Black Studies, 2000, 30, 4, 604–23.
56. E. Berman and L. Iannacone, ‘Religious Extremism: The Good, the Bad and the Deadly’, Public Choice, 2006, 128, 1–2, 109–29.
57. J. Stolow, ‘Communicating Authority, Consuming Authority: Jewish Orthodox Outreach Literature and its Reading Public’, in B. Meyer and A. Moors (eds.), Religion, Media and the Pubic Sphere (Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 73–90.
58. P. Birman, ‘A Mirror to the Future: The Media, Evangelicals and Politics in Brazil’, in B. Meyer and A. Moors (eds.), Religion, Media and the Pubic Sphere (Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 52–72.
59. P. Freston, ‘Evangelical Protestantism and Democratization in Contemporary Latin America and Asia’, Democratization, 2004, 11, 4, 21–41.
60. Arvind Rajagopal, ‘Hindu Nationalism in the US: Changing Configurations of Political Practice’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2000, 23, 3, 467–96.
61. J. K.-C. Tong and B. Turner, ‘Women, Piety and Practice: A Study of Women and Religious Practice in Malaysia’, Contemporary Islam, 2008, 2, 41–59.
The Critical Concepts in Religious Studies series has continued to publish titles on the key subject area. Titles span across the religions and consider some of the most engaging areas of interest, including fundamentalism and ethics.
New in the series, Comparative Religious Ethics is a first of its kind collection. An area where a mass of scholars have now emerged, comparative ethics is an appealing field of study throughout religious studies departments.