Rotary Drilling and Blasting in Large Surface Mines

By Bhalchandra V. Gokhale

© 2011 – CRC Press

748 pages

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9780415878784
pub: 2010-12-13
US Dollars$275.00

e–Inspection Copy

About the Book

In large surface mining operations, drilling and blasting activities constitute more than 15% of the total costs. In order to optimize performance and minimize costs, a thorough knowledge of drill and blast operations is, therefore, extremely important.

In this unique reference volume, rotary blasthole drilling and surface blasting, as applied in large surface mines, are comprehensively covered. Both new and classic concepts, techniques and methodologies are presented, supported by numerous illustrations and practical data. In 26 chapters, drilling, surface blasting, rock, rock mass, machinery, tools and accessories, compressors and air flushing, computing and practice are many other relevant subjects are treated; the first 16 chapters deal with rotary blasthole drilling, and the 10 next chapters with the concepts, theory and practice of blasting. Moreover, the 14 appendices provide vital technical and commercial data, to further support the reader to design, plan, execute, and calculate blasthole drilling operations.

This volume is intended for professionals and technicians in mining, exploration, geological and mechanical engineering, who are involved with the design, planning, and execution of rotary drilling and blasting operations in surface mines.

Table of Contents

1 Surface Rock Excavation Scenario

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Need for Surface Rock Excavation

1.4 Drill and Blast Operations

1.5 Options to Drill and Blast

1.6 Oilwell Drilling

2 An Overview of Blasthole Drilling

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic Concepts of Drilling

2.3 Peculiarities of Blasthole Drilling

2.4 Comparison of Drilling Methods

2.5 Choice of a Blasthole Drilling Method

3 Properties of Rocks

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Earth and Its Interior

3.3 Geological Cycle

3.4 Formation of Rock Mass

3.5 Soils, Rocks and Their Profile

3.6 Occurrence of Minerals

3.7 Rock Specimen Properties

4 Brief History of Rotary Blasthole Drilling

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Era of Shot Hole Drilling

4.3 Rotary Drilling

4.4 Rotary Blasthole Drilling

4.5 Truck Mounted Rotary Blasthole Drills

5 Rotary Blasthole Drilling Bits

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Drag Bits

5.3 Tricone Bits

5.4 Dull Bit Analysis

5.5 Bit Records

5.6 Bit Failure Analysis and Remedy

5.7 Discarding Drill Bits

6 Rotary Blasthole Drilling Accessories

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Drill Pipes

6.3 Stabilizers

6.4 Crossover Subs

6.5 Shock Absorbers

6.6 Miscellaneous Accessories

6.8 Miscellaneous Safety Items

7 Rotary Blasthole Drills

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Assemblies in Rotary Blasthole Drills

7.3 Types of Rotary Blasthole Drills

7.4 Layouts of Rotary Blasthole Drills

7.5 Details of Assemblies

7.6 Extreme Cold Operation Devices

7.7 Comparison of Types of Blasthole Drills

8 Compressed Air and Air Compressors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Compressed Air

8.3 Flow of Compressed Air

8.4 Compressors Used on Blasthole Drills

8.5 Measurements of Compressed Air

9 Mechanics of Rock Fracture Under a Drill Bit

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Rock Fracture in Drilling

9.3 Basics Theory of Solid Fracture

9.4 Fracture of Rock in Drilling

9.5 Drillability of Rocks

9.6 Estimation of Penetration Rate

10 Flushing the Blasthole

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Why Compressed Air?

10.3 Schematics of Flushing

10.4 Formulation of Desired Bailing Velocity

10.5 Formulation of Compressed Air Pressure

10.6 Choosing a Drill Pipe

10.7 Discarding a Drill Pipe

10.8 Choosing Nozzles for Tricone Bits

10.9 Choosing the Right Compressor

11 Effect of Altitude and Severe Weather

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Atmosphere

11.3 Effect of Scarce Air in Drilling

11.4 Effect of Severe Weather

12 Computers in Rotary Blasthole Drilling

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Drill Operation

12.3 Modes of Blasthole Drill Computerization

12.4 Drilling Knowledge Systems

12.5 Positioning by GPS

12.6 Computerized Drill System

12.7 Hardware for Drill Computerization

12.8 Advantages of Drill Computerization

13 Concepts for Rotary Blasthole Drill Design

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Primary Requirements of the Drill

13.3 Size and Weight of the Drill

13.4 Rotary Speed and Torque

13.5 Feed Force and Speed

13.6 Pullout Force and Speed

13.7 Breakout Torque

13.8 Hydraulic Leveling Jacks

13.9 Ground Load Bearing

13.10 Compressor Discharge and Pressure

13.11 Engine Power

14 Cost Analysis of Rotary Blasthole Drilling

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Working Pattern of a Blasthole Drill

14.3 Factors Related to Blasthole Drilling Cost

14.4 Owning Cost

14.5 Operating Cost

14.6 Overhead Cost

14.7 Total Blasthole Drilling Cost

14.8 General Considerations in Cost Estimation

14.9 Example of Cost Estimation

15 Procurement of Rotary Blasthole Drills

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Pre Procurement Considerations

15.3 Procurement Methodology

16 Tips for Operating Rotary Blasthole Drills

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Knowing the Environment

16.3 Moving the Rotary Blasthole Drill

16.4 Setting Up the Rotary Blasthole Drill

16.5 Operating a Rotary Blasthole Drill

16.6 Controlling Dust Emission

16.7 Transporting the Drill

16.8 Maintaining Activities

16.9 Periodical Check Ups

16.10 Drilling Records

16.11 Safety Precautions

17 Mechanics of Blast Fragmentation

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Explosion Process

17.3 Formation of a Crater by a Blast

17.4 Blast Fragmentation Mechanism

18 Properties of Explosives

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Explosives

18.3 Properties of Explosives

19 Thermochemistry of Explosives

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Chemical Nature of Explosives

19.3 Reactions of Explosive Chemicals

20 Explosives - Their History and Composition

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Brief History of Explosives

20.3 Types of Explosives in a Blasthole

20.4 Explosive Mixes Used in Mine Blasts

21 Tests on Explosives

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Tests for Measurements of VOD

21.3 Tests for Measurement of Strength

21.4 Tests for Measurement of Sensitivity

21.5 Tests Related to Storage of Explosive

21.6 Miscellaneous Tests

22 Blasting Consumable and Accessories

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Blasting Consumables

22.3 Blasting Accessories

22.4 Blasting Tools and Miscellaneous Items

23 Hazards to and from Blasting

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Hazards to Blasting Process

23.3 Hazards of Blasting Process

24 Properties of Rock Masses

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Rock Specimen Properties and Blasting

24.3 Properties of Rock Masses and Blasting

25 Methods and Patterns of Charging Blastholes

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Mechanized Blasthole Charging System

25.3 Blasthole Charging Pattern

25.4 Drilling and Firing Patterns

26 Design of a Surface Blast

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Blastholes in a Mine Bench

26.3 Types of Blasting in Surface Mines

26.4 What is Involved in Design of a Blast

26.5 Calculation of Burden

26.6 Relationship of Blasthole Parameters

26.7 Design of Conventional Surface Blast

26.8 Design of Other Types of Blasts

Appendix No. Appendix Title Page Nos.

Appendix 1 Properties of Atmospheric Air at High Altitudes

Appendix 2 Air Properties at Various Temperatures

Appendix 3 Bailing Velocities in Blasthole Annulus

Appendix 4 Air Pressure Loss in Steel Pipes

Appendix 5 Air Pressure Loss in Hose Pipes

Appendix 6 Air Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings

Appendix 7 A Note on Tungsten Carbide and Other Hard Metals

Appendix 8 Scales of Hardness - Measurements and their Conversion

Appendix 9 Manufacturers of Rotary Blasthole Drilling Equipment

Appendix 10 Details of Rotary Blasthole Drills Manufactured Worldwide

Appendix 11 Details of Drill Pipes Used for Rotary Blasthole Drilling

Appendix 12 Details of Stabilizers and Other Miscellaneous Items

Appendix 13 Details of Shock Absorbers

Appendix 14 Properties of Some Rocks

Bibliography, Index

Bibliography, Index

About the Author

Bhalchandra V. Gokhale is an experienced professional who has worked both in practice, on mine construction and foundation works, and on the technological side of blasthole drilling equipment. Through this book, he shares his extensive knowledge of the technological aspects of drilling, mining and construction equipment and their application.

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