Urban Wildlife Management, Second Edition

By Clark E. Adams

© 2009 – CRC Press

432 pages | 15 Color Illus. | 127 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9781439804605
pub: 2009-11-24
US Dollars$107.95

Comp Exam Copy

About the Book

When the first edition of Urban Wildlife Management was published two years ago, it provided conservationists, ecologists, and wildlife professionals with a welcome shift in the way that interactions between humans and wildlife were viewed and managed. Instead of focusing on ways to evict or eradicate wildlife encroached on by urban development, this unique work took a holistic, ecosystems approach. Gathering information from more than five hundred academic sources and the popular media, this book educated us on the complete nature of the problem.

See what's new in the Second Edition:

  • New information garnered from secondary data sets
  • Added contributions from an extended list of leading wildlife specialists
  • Original research conducted by the authors and their students
  • New chapters on urban soils, urban waters, and zoonotic diseases
  • More perspective essays and case studies
  • Single species profiles in each chapter that focus on management issues
  • Numerous tables examining trends by species and by region

Through discussions of past and present approaches in the United States, the bookexplores the changing landscape of wildlife management and future approaches. Urban habitats and hazards are defined in terms of green and gray spaces. Sociopolitical issues are discussed in terms of wildlife management, stakeholder responsibilities, and legal considerations. And wildlife are viewed as adaptive inhabitants of an evolving ecosystem rather than as interlopers in a humans only world.

The author maintains a blog exploring wildlife in our own backyard.


Praise for the first edition:

"… this volume expertly summarizes the primary issues in urban wildlife management … I recommend this book to natural resource agencies … and to university instructors … ."

—W. David Walter, Oklahoma State University, in The Journal of Wildlife Management

"… the first comprehensive book on urban wildlife management. … Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles…thoughtful … concise … ."

—Jennifer Lynch, wildlife biologist, writing in Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Table of Contents

Introduction: A New Wildlife Management Paradigm

Part I

Urban Landscapes

Chapter One

Wildlife Management: Past and Present

Key Concepts

A Brief History of Wildlife Management in North America

Rise of the American Conservation Movement

Changing Wildlife Values

A New Kind of Wildlife

Categorizing Wildlife

The Unique Ecology and Behavior of Urban Wildlife

Special Challenges for Wildlife Management within Urban Settings

Urban Ecosystems

Urban Habitats

Sociopolitical Factors

Special Management Considerations

An Urban Species of Special Interest: The Raccoon (Procyon lotor)

Pet Raccoons

Raccoon Economics

Raccoons as Disease Vectors

The Urban Raccoon



Population Densities

Species Profile: Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Two

The Changing Landscape of Wildlife Management

Key Concepts

Demographic Factors That Set the Stage for Urban Wildlife Management

The Separation of People and Nature

The Need for Wildlife Management in Urban Areas

The Need for Public Education Programs About Urban Wildlife

Outcomes of Human-Wildlife Encounters

Urbanites Need to Reconnect With the Natural World

Urban Wildlife Species Are Increasing, Sometimes to Nuisance Levels

Some Insights into the Magnitude of Urban Wildlife Problems

Urban Species of Most Concern: National Analysis to

Urban Species of Most Concern: Regional Analysis to

Economic Impact of Damage to Resources by Urban Wildlife: National Overview

Economic Impact of Damage to Resources by Urban Wildlife: Regional Overview

Urban Habitats as a Dominant Focus of Wildlife Professionals

The Infrastructure for Urban Wildlife Management Is Missing

Case Study : Neighborhood Moose Killed by Kindness

Species Profile: Bobcat (Lynx rufus)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Part II

Urban Ecosystems

Chapter Three

Ecological Principles in the Urban Context

Key Concepts

Ecological Principles





Ecosystem Structure

Abiotic Structure

Biotic Structure

Food Chains and Webs

Symbiotic Relationships

Biotic Communities

Urban Flora

Urban Fauna

Ecosystem Function

Biogeochemical Cycles


Thermodynamics and Conservation of Matter

Ecological Succession

Ecosystem Services

Species Profile: Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Four

Urban Soils

Key Concepts


Soil Formation

Soil Structure

Soil Horizons

Soil Functions

Soil Biota and Their Functions

Impacts of Urbanization on Soil Structure and Function

Structure Modification: Compaction and Surface Crusting

Modified Soil Reaction

Anthropogenic Materials

Increased Soil Temperatures

Taking Better Care of Urban Soil

Urban Wildlife Management Implications

Species Profile: Moles (Talpidae spp )

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Five

Urban Waters

Key Concepts


The Flow of Water through an Urban Community





The Water Cycle—Nature’s Filter

The Transpiration Loop

The Groundwater Loop

The Evaporation Loop

Caring For the Water Cycle

Riparian Corridors: Streams and Rivers

Abiotic Effects of Urbanization on Riparian Ecology


Stream Channelization

Biotic Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecology

The Aquatic Food Chain

Fish as Indicator Species

Restoration of Riparian Habitats

Urban Wetlands

Water Gardens

Constructed Wetlands

Urban (Community) Fisheries Programs


Species Profile: American Beaver (Castor canadensis)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Six

Principles of Population Dynamics

Key Concepts





Factors Affecting Population Densities

How Populations Grow

Population Growth Rate Patterns

Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Population Dynamics

Effects of Supplemental Feeding on Population Dynamics

Effects of Animal Damage Control Activities on Population Dynamics

Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Wildlife Population Dynamics

Species Profile: Tree Squirrels (Sciurus spp )

Chapter Activity

Literature Cited



Chapter Seven

Urban Green Spaces

Key Concepts


Green Spaces

Remnant Habitat Patches

Successional Habitat Patches

Managed Habitat Patches


Golf Courses

Nature Centers

Rural versus Urban Wildlife Populations

Species Profile: Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)


Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Eight

Urban Gray Spaces

Key Concepts


Buildings, Windows, and Towers



Communication Towers

Wind Towers

Roads and Highways

Animal Mortality

Overpasses, Underpasses, and Escape Routes

Structural Design Considerations

Bridges, Birds, and Bats

Landfills, Dumpsters, and Garbage Cans

Organic Waste Accumulations: A Concept Unique to Urban Ecosystems

Factors That Promote the Presence of Wildlife at Landfills

Standards Used in Landfill Siting

Types of Habitats Found in and around Landfills

Human-Wildlife Conflicts at Landfills

Wildlife Management at Landfills


Standards for Airport Siting and Zoning

Types of Habitats Found in and around Airports

Wildlife Species Attracted to Airport Habitats

Human-Wildlife Interactions at Airports

Wildlife Management Priorities at Airports

Species Profile: Mexican Free-Tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited



Chapter Nine

Human Dimensions in Urban Wildlife Management

Key Concepts


The "People Factor"

Conducting Human Dimensions Research

Surveying Wildlife Recreationists

The Role of Human Dimensions in Urban Wildlife Management

Public Participation in Wildlife-Associated Recreation

Wildlife Values

Quality of Life Issues

Human-Wildlife Conflict Issues

HD Methods for Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Case Study : Ducks and Traffic

An Urban Species of Special Concern: Urban Coyotes (Canis latrans)

What Is an Urban Coyote?

Range Expansion

Coping with Coyotes—Management Plans

Coyote Economics

Coyote Control Considerations

Species Profile: American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Ten

Working with Urban Stakeholders

Key Concepts

Inviting Everyone to the Table

The Policy Life Cycle

What (and Who) Is a Stakeholder?

The Changing Face of Wildlife Stakeholders

A Guide to Major Stakeholders

Government (Public Sector)


Tribal Governments

State and Territorial Governments

Local Governments

Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)

Academic Institutions

The Public

Case Study : Stakeholders Disagree on Best Approach for Managing Fallow Deer

Species Profile: Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Eleven

Legal Aspects of Urban Wildlife Management

Key Concepts

Wildlife Law

Federal Laws

The Lacey Act of

The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of

The Animal Damage Control Act of

The Endangered Species Act of

State Laws

County and Municipal Laws

Local Ordinances

Who Is in Charge Here?

Protecting the Health and Safety of All

Case Study : Operation Remove Excrement

Species Profile: Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited



Chapter Twelve

The Ecology and Management Considerations of Selected Species

Key Concepts


Endangered Species

Houston Toad (Bufo houstonensis)

San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica)

Florida Key Deer (Odocoileu virginianus clavium)

Introduced Species

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Nutria (Myocastor coypus)

Feral Species

Pigeons (Columba livia)

Free-Ranging Domestic Cats (Felis catus)

Free-Ranging Hogs (Sus scrofa)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Thirteen

Zoonoses and Management Considerations

Key Concepts

What Are Zoonoses?

Parasitic Diseases



Trematodes (Flukes)

Cestodes (Tapeworms)

Nematodes (Roundworms)

Mycotic Diseases



Bacterial Diseases



Viral Diseases


Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

West Nile Virus (WNV)

Prion Diseases

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy


Chronic Wasting Disease

Species Profile: American Robin (Turdus migratorius Linnaeus)

Chapter Activities

Literature Cited

Chapter Fourteen

Distribution, Abundance, and Management Considerations of Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer

Key Concepts


Factors That Contributed To Geese and Deer Abundance in Urban America

Extent of the Problem: A National Assessment of Human-White-Tailed Deer and Canada

Geese Conflicts

Objectives and Questions Included in the National Assessment

Results of the National Assessment

Management Implications of the National Assessment

Distribution of Resident Canada Geese and White-Tailed Deer in the Continental United States

The Human Response to Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer

Ecological Impacts of Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer

Health and Safety Issues Related to Resident Canada Geese and Urban White-Tailed Deer

White-Tailed Deer and Lyme Disease

Feasible and Acceptable Management Strategies for Overabundant Resident Canada Geese

Avoiding the Problem

Getting at the Root Cause

Attack the Symptoms

Do Nothing


Case Study : A Tale of Two Cities

The Two Cities

The Citizen Survey

Questionnaire Development

The Response

Educational Program Development

Chapter Activity

Literature Cited


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Ecology
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Zoology / General