Semiconductor Packaging

Materials Interaction and Reliability

By Andrea Chen, Randy Hsiao-Yu Lo

© 2012 – CRC Press

216 pages | 108 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9781439862056
pub: 2011-10-10
US Dollars$181.95

About the Book

In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package.

The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing—package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how the properties of packaging materials interact with each another and explore how to maximize the performance of these materials in regard to package integrity and reliability.

By tying together the disparate elements essential to a semiconductor package, this easy-to-read book shows how all the parts fit and work together to provide durable protection for the integrated circuit chip within as well as a means for the chip to communicate with the outside world.


Meticulously written and organized … this book has everything needed to develop a complete understanding of semiconductor packaging, particularly how materials interact with one another. … this book is easy to read and, more importantly, easy to understand … Particularly valuable are the appendices from the chapter describing analytical tools, what they are and how they are used and the chapter on destructive tools and tests. … whether an experienced engineer involved in electronic packaging or a novice, you need to make sure that this volume is a part of your technical library.

—Dan Beaulieu, D.B. Management Group, in I-Connect007, December 2011

This book provides a complete and systematic discussion of key materials used in electronic packages. Unlike most of its competitors which are composed by several contributors, this book is written by two authors who are well-respected veterans in the electronic package industry. Therefore, consistency and easy to follow for new engineers and students will be the most distinguishing features for this book.

—Kevin K.L. Chen, Qualcomm Atheros, San Jose, California, USA

This book gives a good general overview of materials used in the making of semiconductor packages. The text covers both individual material types and their performance requirements in the end product. Also discussed are the historical background, purpose, key material properties, various material interactions, reliability requirements, and future trends. The book is easy to read and would serve as an excellent introduction to the subject for a student or engineer unfamiliar with the topic. It would also serve as a handy reference guide for a basic understanding of semiconductor packaging materials, as well of semiconductor packaging itself.

—Zemo Yang, Ambarella Corp, Santa Clara, California, USA

Materials technology is enabling the rapid development of new and advanced semiconductor packaging form factors. Knowledge of how material interactions impact package reliability and performance is ever more critical to the semiconductor industry, so both students and engineers need a resource to turn to in understanding material technology issues and trade-offs. This book serves as such a resource and reference guide to the world of semiconductor packaging materials.

—Daniel P. Tracy, SEMI, San Jose, California, USA

A great book for someone who quickly wishes to get up to speed in 1st level of semiconductor packaging.

—Jack Belani, Vice President, Marketing and Sales, Contact Materials Division, Heraeus Materials Technology LLC

Table of Contents


History and Background



Brief history

Wire bonding process flow

Flip-chip process flow comparison


Material interactions

Package Form Factors and Families



Package outline standardization

Leaded package families

Quad lead package family

Substrate-based package families

Chip scale packages

Stacked-die package family

Package-on-package and related variations

Flip-chip packages

Wafer-level chip scale packages

Surface-Mount Technology




Package cracking or "popcorning"

Surface-mount packages: peripheral leads versus area array

Issues with advanced packaging

Current and future trends

Other Packaging Needs



Tape automated bonding

Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)

Image sensor modules

Memory cards

Packaging needs for solar technology


Reliability Testing



Examples of reliability tests

Limitations of reliability testing



Molding compounds

Die attach adhesives

Underfill materials

Organic substrates


Lead frames, heat spreaders, and heat sinks

Bonding wires


Wafer bumping

Ceramics and Glasses



Types of ceramics used in semiconductor packaging

Types of glasses used in semiconductor packaging


Trends and Challenges



Copper interconnects and low-κ dielectric materials

Dielectric constant requirements at each technology node

Future interconnect and dielectric materials

Future packaging options

Light-Emitting Diodes



Unique characteristics of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging needs

Reliability requirements for LED packages

Appendix A: Analytical Tools

Appendix B: Destructive Tools and Tests


Bibliography appears at the end of each chapter.

About the Authors

Andrea Chen is a technical marketing manager at Siliconware USA, Inc. She previously worked in the Technology Development group at ChipPAC, Inc. and in the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. She has coauthored more than 30 papers and presentations.

Randy Hsiao-Yu Lo is president of Siliconware USA, Inc. He was previously the vice president of R&D at SPIL, leader of the Electronic Packaging Development group at ERSO/ITRI-Taiwan, and senior engineering manager of the Package Technology group at National Semiconductor Corporation. He has coauthored more than 20 papers and presentations and holds over 40 U.S. patents.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General