ZigBee® Network Protocols and Applications

Edited by Chonggang Wang, Tao Jiang, Qian Zhang

© 2014 – Auerbach Publications

378 pages | 157 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9781439816011
pub: 2014-03-11
US Dollars$89.95

e–Inspection Copy

About the Book

Compared with other wireless communication technologies, such as Bluetooth, WiFi, and UWB, ZigBee® is a far more reliable, affordable, and energy-efficient option. It is also the only global wireless communication standard for easily deployed, low-power consumption products.

ZigBee® Network Protocols and Applications provides detailed descriptions of ZigBee network protocols and explains how to set up and develop your own ZigBee-based customized applications with step-by-step instructions. Starting with a brief introduction to near-field communications, low-power communications, and related protocols, it discusses ZigBee architectures, standards, and protocols. It also addresses potential issues such as power management, security, reliability, quality of service, topology control, MAC routing, and transport protocols.

Emphasizing development tools that are based on readily available commercial kits, the book illustrates ZigBee applications across a wide range of fields. Each chapter presents the contributions of a different group of experts from around the world. The book is organized into five major parts:

  1. Introduces near-field communications (NFC), low-power communications, and ZigBee along with related protocols such as Bluetooth, WiFi, UWB, and Wireless USB
  2. Describes ZigBee architectures, standards, and protocols
  3. Examines ZigBee performance improvement and addresses potential issues
  4. Illustrates ZigBee applications across a range of fields—explaining how to develop ZigBee applications that are based on commercially available kits and hardware
  5. Compares and contrasts ZigBee with 6LoWPAN, Z-Wave, Wireless Hart, and RFID

Providing step-by-step instruction on how to set up and develop ZigBee-based applications, this book is a must-read for researchers and engineers. Supplying the required foundation and network protocols, it is also suitable for use as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical or computer engineering programs.

Table of Contents

Background Introduction; Guang Yang



Modulation and Coding

Two Communication Modes



IEEE 802.11 / WiFi


Evolution of IEEE 802.11

Architecture of IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.11b

Channel Selection

Modulation Technique

Physical Layer Frame Format

Access Method in Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

IEEE 802.11g

Modulation Technique

Physical Layer Frame Format



PHY Layer Specifications and Features

Frequency Band and Channel

Modulation Technique: GFSK

Power Class

Using FHSS and TDD

Physical Links

Network Topology

802.15.4 Low-Rate WPAN

IEEE802.15.4 Features

Type of Device


PHY Layer Specification

Spread and Modulation

PPDU Frame Format

Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)

MAC Specification

Superframe Structure

Transmission Mechanisms

MAC Layer Frame Format[9]




ZigBee network

ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 Standards; Yu-Doo Kim, Il-Young Moon



ZigBee Architecture

Application Layer

APS (Application Support Sub-Layer

Application Framework

ZDO (ZigBee Device Objects)

Network Layer

NLDE(Network Layer Data Entity)

NLME(Network Layer Management Entity)

Service Specification



Network Layer Security

APL Layer Security

Trust Center Role

IEEE 802.15.4 Standards


Network Topology

Star Network

Peer-to-Peer Network


PHY Layer

MAC Layer

Frame Structure

Super Frame

Beacon Frame

Data Frame

Acknowledgement Frame

MAC Command Frame

Channel Access Mechanism

GTS Allocation and Management

Related MAC Standards

IEEE 802.15.5

IEEE 802.15.4eWPAN Enhancement

IEEE 802.15.4f for RFID

IEEE 802.15.4g for Smart Utility


Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4MAC Layer; M.R. Palattella, A. Faridi, G. Boggia, P. Camarda, L.A. Grieco, M. Dohler, A. Lozano


IEEE 802.15.4WPANs: an Overview

Superframe Structure

The SlottedCSMA/CA Mechanism

MarkovChains for the Slotted CSMA/CA

System Model and Notation

Markov Chain Model

Discussion of the Pollin Model


Average Delay

Average Power Consumption

Mean Number of Backoffs and CCAs

Mean Number of Backoffs

Mean Number of CCAs


Analysis of the Model Assumptions

Dependence of α and β on the Back off Stage

Dependence of the Backoff Stage of a Node on That of Other Nodes

Conclusion and Outlook

Advanced MAC Protocols for ZigBee Networks; Baozhi Chen and Dario Pompili


Related Work

One-channel MAC Protocols

Multi-channel MAC Protocols with One Transceiver

Multi-channel MAC Protocols with Multiple Transceivers

Packet Scheduling Algorithms

Proposed Cross-layer Multi-channel Communication Solution

Motivations for the Cross-layer Multi-channel Solution

Proposed MQ-MAC Protocol

Channel Quality Based Routing

Cross-layer Solution: CQBR + MQ-MAC + Scheduling

Performance Evaluation

Experiment Scenario: Healthcare Monitoring

Experiment Results

Conclusions and Future Work

Energy Optimization Techniques for the PHY andMAC Layers of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee; Al-Khateeb Anwar, Luciano Lavagno


Overview of ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 Protocols

Physical Layer Energy Consumption Model

Physical Layer Energy Consumption Minimization Model

Energy Consumption for Multi-Hop Transmission with Unknown Number of Hops

Energy Consumption for Multi-Hop Transmission with Known Number of Hops and Different Distances

Energy Consumption for Multi-Hop Transmission with Unknown Number of Hops and Different Distances

Power Efficient MAC Protocol

Initialization Phase

Optimum Tree Network Design

Periodic Listening and Sleep Phase

Selection of the Number of Required GTSS Lots



Simulation Results


Security Issues in ZigBee Networks; Sudip Misra, Sumit Goswami


ZigBee and its Applications

ZigBee Network Security

ZigBee Security Problems

Overview of ZigBee Security

Security Issues in Wired Vs Sensor network

Design Issues

Types of Keys

Master Key

Network Key

Link Key

Key Management and Trust Setup

Trust Centre

Security in 802.15.4

Security Services

Security Modes

Security Suite

CTR Mode


CCM Mode

ZigBee Vulnerabilities

Vulnerability Attacks


Future Directions for Research


Coexistence Issues between ZigBee and Other Networks; Dan Keun Sung, Jo Woon Chong, and Su Min Kim


Performance Analysis of ZigBee Networks in the Presence of Interference

Empirical Measurements

ZigBee in the Presence of a WLAN Interferer

ZigBee in the Presence of a Microwave Oven Interferer

ZigBee in the Presence of Both WLAN and Microwave Oven Interferers

Mathematical Modeling and Simulation

ZigBee in the Presence of Bluetooth Interference

ZigBee in the Presence of WLAN Interference

Interference Avoidance/Mitigation Algorithms

Self-Interference Avoidance Algorithms

Hopping-Based Self-Interference Avoidance Algorithm

Adaptive Interference-Aware Multi-Channel Clustering Algorithm

Adaptive and Dynamic Interference Avoidance Algorithm

Network-Aided Interference Mitigation Algorithms

Portable Device Aided Coexistence Algorithm

Network-Centric Inter-System Interference Mediation Algorithm

Discussion on Cognitive Radio as an Interference Mitigation Technology

Cognitive Radio for Interference Mitigation: Raw PEACH Protocol

Performance Evaluation

Summary and Conclusion

ZigBeeProfile; Pan Zhou, Tao Jiang, Chonggang Wang, Qian Zhang

ZigBee Overview


Standard and Profiles


Application Profiles

ZigBee Radio Hardware

Device types and Operating Modes

Network Layer

Application Layer

Main Components

Communication Models

Communication and Device Discovery

Security Services

Basic Security Model

Security Architecture

Simulation of ZigBee Networks

Latest Situation of ZigBee Specification Overview

ZigBee PRO Green Power Feature

The ZigBee RF4CE Specification

ZigBeeRF4CE Overview

ZigBee RF4CE Network Topology

ZigBee Smart Energy Standard Overview

ZigBee Smart Energy Benefits

Smart Energy Profile2 (SEP2.0)

SEP 2.0 Functionality

SEP 2.0 Architecture and Technologies

Enabling Smart-Energy Devices and Services

Offering Consumer Value beyond Energy Savings

ZigBee IP Specification

ZigBee IP Compliant Platform

ZigBee IP: The First Open Standard for IPv6-BasedWirelessMeshNetworks

ZigBee IP Specification Overview

ZigBee IP Specification Network Topology

Developing ZigBee CertifiedProducts; Huasong Cao, Sergio González-Valenzuela, and Victor C. M. Leung

ZigBee Application Layer

Application Support Sub-Layer


Device Description

Cluster and Attributes

Application Objects

ZigBee Device Objects

ZigBee Certified Products

ZigBee Certified Products

Manufacturer Specific Certified Products

ZigBee Compliant Platforms

Designed for ZigBee Products

Certification Process

OEM Platforms

SoC, ZigBee Processor, and Software Stack

ZigBee in Tiny OS

Free vs. Open

Sensors and Actuators

Developing ZigBee Certified Products: An Example


Development Steps

Specify the Requirements of the Application

Design the Application Profile

Device Descriptions

Cluster and Attributes

Sensor Control Cluster

Monitoring Cluster

Choose the Functional Platform

Develop Firmware

Test the System

Initiate Certification Procedure


Monitoring the Efficiency of Workflow; Vincent Tam, Johnny Yeung


Related Works

Wireless Sensors and Their Applications

The ZigBee Networks

The Architecture of Our Monitoring System

Prototype Implementation and Evaluation

Concluding Remarks

ZigbeeVsOtherProtocolsandStandards; Kumar Padmanabh, Sougata Sen and Sanjoy Paul


The Purpose of Standarization


Motivation for BACNet Standards

Architecture of BACNet

Wireless Technologies in BACNet

Physical and Data Link Layer in BACNet

Network Layer of BACNet

Application Layer in BACNet

Objects in BACNet

Application Services in BACNet

The HART System


Architecture of HART

Wireless HART Protocol

Physical and Data Link Layer of wireless HART

Network Layer of Wireless HART

QoS in Wireless HART


The RFID Architecture, Advantages of Using RFID

Challenges in RFID

RFID Applications

Standards for RFID Application

Data Management in RFID

Comparison between RFID and Zigbee


Motivation behind the 6LoWPAN Standards

Architecture of 6LoWPAN System

The Physical and MAC Layer in 6LoWPAN

Adaptation Layer of the 6LoWPAN

Network Layer of 6LoWPAN

Transport Layer in 6LoWPAN

Application Layer in6LoWPAN


Security in 6LoWPAN

QoS in 6LoWPAN

Zigbee vs 6LoWPAN


Motivation behind the Z-Wave Standards

The Architecture of Z-Wave System

Physical Layer in Z-Wave

MAC Layers Protocol of the Z-Wave

Transfer Layer of the Z-Wave

Routing Layer in the Z-Wave

Application Layer in Z-Wave

Z-Wave Devices

Security in Z-Wave

QoS in Z-Wave

Zigbee vs Z-Wave


Motivation behind the ISA100Standards

The architecture of ISA100.11a System

ISA100.11a Scope

ISA100.12:Wireless HART Convergence

ISA100.15 Wireless Backbone Backhaul


ISA100.11a and ISA100.12 Network

ISA100.21 the Asset Tracking

Handling of QoS in ISA100.11a

Zigbee vs ISA100

Comparison of Different Standards

Comparison of Zigbee and Other Standard for Industrial Automation

Comparison of Zigbee and Other Building Automation Standards

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications