Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Third Edition

By Frank R. Spellman

© 2013 – CRC Press

923 pages | 521 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:
Paperback: 9781466553378
pub: 2013-10-21
US Dollars$167.95

About the Book

Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations the first thorough resource manual developed exclusively for water and wastewater plant operators has been updated and expanded. An industry standard now in its third edition, this book addresses management issues and security needs, contains coverage on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and includes regulatory changes. The author explains the material in layman’s terms, providing real-world operating scenarios with problem-solving practice sets for each scenario. This provides readers with the ability to incorporate math with both theory and practical application. The book contains additional emphasis on operator safety, new chapters on energy conservation and sustainability, and basic science for operators.

What’s New in the Third Edition:

  • Prepares operators for licensure exams
  • Provides additional math problems and solutions to better prepare users for certification exams
  • Updates all chapters to reflect the developments in the field
  • Enables users to properly operate water and wastewater plants and suggests troubleshooting procedures for returning a plant to optimum operation levels

A complete compilation of water science, treatment information, process control procedures, problem-solving techniques, safety and health information, and administrative and technological trends, this text serves as a resource for professionals working in water and wastewater operations and operators preparing for wastewater licensure exams. It can also be used as a supplemental textbook for undergraduate and graduate students studying environmental science, water science, and environmental engineering.

Table of Contents

Section I Water and Wastewater Operations: An Overview

Current Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations


Sick Water

Publicly Owned Treatment Works: Cash Cows or Cash Dogs?

The Paradigm Shift

Multiple-Barrier Concept

Management Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Operations

Water/Wastewater Operators


Setting The Record Straight

The Computer-Literate Jack or Jill

Plant Operators as Emergency Responders

Operator Duties, Numbers, and Working Conditions

Operator Certification and Licensure

Upgrading Security


Consequences of 9/11

Security Hardware/Devices


Energy Conservation Measures and Sustainability


Pumping System Energy Conservation Measures

Design and Control of Aeration Systems


Water/Wastewater References, Models, and Terminology

Setting the Stage

Treatment Process Models

Key Terms, Acronyms, and Abbreviations Used in Water and Wastewater Operations

Section II Water/Wastewater Operations: Math, Physics, and Technical Aspects

Water/Wastewater Math Operations


Calculation Steps

Equivalents, Formulae, and Symbols

Basic Water/Wastewater Math Operations

Applied Math Operations

Water Math Concepts

Wastewater Math Concepts

Water/Wastewater Laboratory Calculations

Science Fundamentals


Force and Motion



Newton’s Laws of Motion




Circular Motion

Angular Motion

Angular Velocity

Angular Acceleration


Angular Momentum


Thermal Properties

States of Matter

Wave Motion and Sound



Blueprint Reading

Blueprints: The Universal Language

Units of Measurement

Alphabet of Lines

Dimensions and Shop Notes

Machine Drawings

Sheet Metal Drawings

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Drawings

Welding Blueprints and Symbols

Electrical Drawings

AC&R Drawings

Schematics and Symbols

Electrical Schematics

General Piping Systems and System Schematics

Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Schematic Symbols

Water Hydraulics

What Is Water Hydraulics?

Basic Concepts

Stevin’s Law

Density and Specific Gravity

Force and Pressure


Flow and Discharge Rates: Water in Motion

Piezometric Surface and Bernoulli’s Theorem

Well and Wet Well Hydraulics

Friction Head Loss

Basic Piping Hydraulics

Open-Channel Flow

Flow Measurement

Fundamentals of Electricity

Nature of Electricity

The Structure of Matter

Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulators

Static Electricity


Difference in Potential



Battery-Supplied Electricity

Simple Electrical Circuit

Ohm’s Law

Electrical Power

Electrical Energy (Kilowatt-Hours)

Series DC Circuit Characteristics


Open and Short Circuits

Parallel DC Circuits

Series–Parallel Circuits



AC Theory


Practical Electrical Applications

Hydraulic Machines: Pumps


Basic Pumping Calculations

Centrifugal Pumps

Positive-Displacement Pumps

Water/Wastewater Conveyance

Delivering the Lifeblood of Civilization

Conveyance Systems


Fluids vs Liquids

Maintaining Fluid Flow in Piping Systems

Piping System Accessories

Piping System Temperature Effects and Insulation

Metallic Piping

Nonmetallic Piping


Industrial Hoses

Pipe and Tube Fittings


Piping System Protective Devices

Piping Ancillaries

Section III Characteristics of Water

Basic Water Chemistry

Chemistry Concepts and Definitions

Chemistry Fundamentals

Water Solutions

Water Constituents

Common Water Measurements

Water Treatment Chemicals

Chemical Drinking Water Parameters

Water Microbiology


Microbiology: What Is It?

Water/Wastewater Microorganisms

Key Terms

Microorganism Classification and Differentiation

The Cell



Microscopic Crustaceans




Nematodes and Flatworms (Worms)

Water Treatment and Microbiological Processes

Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Processes

Water Ecology


What Is Ecology?

Why Is Ecology Important?

Why Study Ecology?

History of Ecology

Levels of Organization


Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

Food Chain Efficiency

Ecological Pyramids


Population Ecology

Stream Genesis and Structure

Benthic Life

Benthic Plants and Animals

Benthic Macroinvertebrates

Typical Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Running Waters

Summary of Key Terms

Water Quality


Water Cycle

Water Quality Standards

Water Quality Characteristics of Water and Wastewater

Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and Testing

What Is Biomonitoring?

Periphyton Protocols

Fish Protocols

Macroinvertebrate Protocols

Biological Sampling in Streams

Drinking Water Quality Monitoring

General Preparation and Sampling Considerations

Test Methods for Drinking Water and Wastewater

Section IV Water and Water Treatment

Potable Water Source

Earth’s Blood


Hydrologic Cycle

Sources of Water

Surface Water


Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water

Surface Water Quality/Treatment Requirements

Public Water System Quality Requirements

Well Systems

Watershed Protection


Current Issues in Water Management

What Is a Watershed?

Watershed Protection and Regulations

A Watershed Protection Plan

Reservoir Management Practices

Watershed Management Practices

Eight Tools of Watershed Protection

Water Treatment Operations


Waterworks Operators

Purpose of Water Treatment

Stages of Water Treatment







Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water

Who Is Ultimately Responsible for Drinking Water Quality?

Section V Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment Operations

Wastewater Operators

Wastewater Terminology and Definitions

Measuring Plant Performance

Wastewater Sources and Characteristics

Wastewater Collection Systems

Preliminary Treatment

Primary Treatment (Sedimentation)

Secondary Treatment

Activated Sludge

Disinfection of Wastewater

Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Solids (Sludge/Biosolids) Handling

Permits, Records, and Reports



About the Author

Frank R. Spellman is a retired U.S. Naval Officer with 26 years of active duty, a retired environmental safety & health manager for a large wastewater sanitation district in Virginia, and retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. The author/co-author of 87 books, Spellman consults on environmental matters with the US Department of Justice, and various law firms and environmental entities around the globe. Spellman holds a BA in Public Administration, BS in Business Management, MBA, and MS/PhD in Environmental Engineering.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply