Introduction to Crowd Science

By G. Keith Still

© 2014 – CRC Press

300 pages | 81 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9781466579644
pub: 2014-06-30
US Dollars$130.00

Comp Exam Copy

About the Book

Includes Case Studies from a Range of Event Sites

Introduction to Crowd Science examines the growing rate of crowd-related accidents and incidents around the world. Using tools, methods, and worked examples gleaned from over 20 years of experience, this text provides an understanding of crowd safety. It establishes how crowd accidents and incidents (specifically mass fatalities in crowded spaces) can occur. The author explores the underlying causes and implements techniques for crowd risk analysis and crowd safety engineering that can help minimize and even eliminate occurrences altogether.

Understand Overall Crowd Dynamics and Levels of Complex Structure

The book outlines a simple modeling approach to crowd risk analysis and crowds safety in places of public assembly. With consideration for major events, and large-scale urban environments, the material focuses on the practical elements of developing the crowd risk analysis and crowd safety aspects of an event plan. It outlines a range of modeling techniques, including line diagrams that represent crowd flow, calculations of the speed at which a space can fill, and the time it takes for that space to reach critical and crush density. It also determines what to consider during the event planning and approval (licensing/permitting) phases of the event process.

Introduction to Crowd Science addresses key questions and presents a systematic approach to managing crowd risks in complex sites. It provides an understanding of the complexity of a site, that helps youplan for crowds in public places.


"Really excellent work. It does a good job of taking a very sophisticated topic and making it accessible for an educated reader."

—Tracy Pearl, Florida International University

Table of Contents


Why do we need this?

Crowd modelling

Research background

Understanding the problem

Learning from past experience

The root of the problem

Research revisited

Cost-effective crowd safety modelling


Crowd risk analysis


Basic planning/approval requirement

Understanding the basic skills

Body space

Event guidance

Defining risks

The minimum is not enough

Keep the crowd density low

A bigger picture

Graphing the results

Better references

Dangerous crowd simulations

Defining ‘risk’ due to density




Event legislation

Site design: theory

Crowd forces

Underlying causality|

Crowd science



Crowd dynamics and crowd science

Caveat emptor

Are all crowd simulations bad?

Applications of a crowd simulation



Crowd and event modelling


The crowd management plan

Modelling for a major project

What is an event model?

RAMP analysis





RAMP analysis: Summary

DIM-ICE: Summary

Decision support analysis

Case studies and examples


Assessing the risk assessment

Case study examples

Modelling an event

A picture speaks a thousand words

How to begin

Visualising risk

RAMP analysis

Ingress—capacity—Beijing Olympics Torch Relay

Manchester United Victory Parade

Hillsborough (1989)

Ingress—circulation—Lincoln Christmas Market

Event—site capacity—Leicester Caribbean Carnival

Circulation—capacity—The Jamarat Bridge

System rules

Ingress—egress (shared space)—Love Parade Disaster

Egress—congestion—London New Year Event (Fireworks)

Egress—crowd management—Wembley White


Control room applications


Incident detection

Control room

Understanding crowd dynamics

Real-time decision support tool

Real-time information

Mass transit systems

Estimating density

Emergency management


Paradox of choice

Four solutions

Problems with evacuation simulations

The way forward


Increased awareness

Ultimate responsibility

Event process


Why should you listen to us?

Final word

Appendix A: Essential crowd safety mathematics



About the Author

G. Keith Still

Burton-in-Kendal, Cumbria, United Kingdom

Learn more about G. Keith Still >>

G. Keith Still lectures at a number of international universities including Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. He has lectured at the UK Cabinet Office Emergency Planning College since 1999 and developed the EPC’s Crowd Dynamics and Crowd Science materials and workshops as well as contributing to other safety-related courses. Still’s mathematical, human behavior modelling, and simulation tools have led to the development of a systematic blueprint for the crowd safety industry. His tools (Legion, Paramics UAF, Myriad, Shepard, Tawaf, DWELL, progressive crowd collapse and pressure modelling) have been used for the analysis of crowd risks in complex and built spaces for over a decade.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
PSYCHOLOGY / Social Psychology
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Disasters & Disaster Relief
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety
TRANSPORTATION / Public Transportation