Practical Environmental Bioremediation

The Field Guide, Second Edition

By R. Barry King, John K. Sheldon, Gilbert M. Long

© 1997 – CRC Press

208 pages

Purchasing Options:
Hardback: 9781566702089
pub: 1997-12-29

About the Book

Bioremediation, or enhanced microbiological treatment, of environments contaminated with a variety of organic and inorganic compounds is one of the most effective innovative technologies to come around this century! Practical Environmental Bioremediation: The Field Guide presents updated material, case histories and many instructive illustrations to reflect the evolving image of this fast-emerging industry.

Bioremediation technology has witnessed great strides towards simplifying treatability formats, finding new approaches to field application, more potent nutrient formulations, monitoring protocols and the resulting general improvement in results. This new guide condenses all current available knowledge and presents necessary technical aspects and concepts in language that can be readily comprehended by the technical student, experienced scientist or engineer, the aspiring newcomer, or anyone else interested in this exciting natural cleanup technique.


"The authors make a point to correct some of the misuses of terminology commonly encountered in this field… a resource appropriate for professionals, graduate, and upper-division undergraduate students, and faculty."


The strengths of this new bioremediation guide are the clear and concise manner in which the authors convey the fundamentals and practical aspects of many forms of bioremediation…The book is very well organized, and presents complex concepts in plain language while providing excellent discussions that detail the major bioremediation processes and considerations. The authors have succeeded in producing an informative guide offering many facts and concepts in a format that is enjoyable to read… The book will benefit practitioners and novices alike in the decision-making of where and how to implement bioremediation in the field."-Jean M. Neubeck, Consulting Hydrologist, Alpha Geoscience

"…This book on bioremediation provides a great deal of fundamental concepts and technical information necessary to understand and implement a bioremediation strategy at contaminated sites. The authors clearly and directly communicate the basics of bioremediation in plain language that will benefit laymen and practitioners of environmental science… the reading in both easy and informative."-Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences

"This very multi-disciplinary title is recommended for academic libraries and other special collections that cover the subject areas of environmental engineering, waste recovery, and environmental cleanup monitoring. However, it is more suitable as an overview of, or guide to, the subject rather than a ready reference source."-E-Streams, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 1999

Table of Contents

Introduction: A Historical Perspective

Regulatory History

Early Successes

Discovery of Hydrocarbon-degrading Microbes Oils Spills

Discovery of Metal-Detoxifying Microbes

Three Bioremediation Treatment Approaches:



Intrinsic Treatment

Recent Advances in Bioremediation Technology

The Chapters Ahead

Microbial Nutrition and Environmental Requirements

Microbial Ubiquity

Microbial Nutrition


Energy for Metabolism

The Role of Oxygen

Environmental Requirements

Microbial Growth


Logarithmic Growth

Stationary Phase

Death Phase

Bacterial Pathogens

Microbial Survival

Microbial Destruction of Environmental Pollutants

Biomineralization vs. Biotransformation

Biodegradation Processes for Organic Compounds

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration


Biooxidation in Wastewater Treatment




Microbial Detoxification

of Metals


Mixed Populations


Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Radiation Effects

Acquired Radiation Resistance

Radioactive Mixed Waste Treatment

Constructed Wetlands

The Bioremediation Laboratory

Bioassessment Screening Studies

Microbiological Assay

Biotreatability Studies




Choosing a Laboratory

Applied Bioremediation : An Overview

The Bioremediation Approach

Intrinsic Bioremediation

Selection Guide for Appropriate Biotechnology

Soils and Sludges

Liquids and Aqueous Solutions

Project Organization

Site Characterization

Initial Bioassessment Testing

Detailed Studies, Pilot Testing, and Process Design

Procurement, Installation and Startup

Process Monitoring and Operation

Final Sampling and Closure

Reporting and Management

Anaerobic Treatment: Sans Oxygen

Process Definition

Anaerobic Degradation

Pros and Cons of Anaerobic Treatment

Types of Anaerobic Systems


Anaerobic Activated Sludge

Fixed-Film Units

Anaerobic Rotating Biological Contractors (ARBCs)

Fluidized Bed Reactors

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)

Ex Situ Soil Treatment (Soil Cells)

In Situ Anaerobic Remediation

Design Considerations

Applications for Anaerobic Treatment

Surface Bioremediation of Soils and Sludges: Land Treatment


Feasibility Testing

Design and Construction

Nutrient Application

Operations and Monitoring






Project Exercise

How Much Soil?

How Big an Area?


Watering System

How Long Might It Take?

Does the Buyer Need the Space?

What Will the Conceptual Design Cost?

Work Plan and Permits

Excavation and Backfill

Treatment Cell Construction


Operating Costs


Bioreactors: The Technology of Total Control


Process Definition

Bioreactor Configurations

Activated Sludge

Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs)

Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs)

Trickling Filters

Soil Slurry Reactors

Vapor Phase Bioreactors (Biofilters)

Fixed-Film, Plug Flow

Design Considerations

Pilot Testing

Installation and Startup

Case History


In Situ Aquifer Bioremediation

Hydrogeologic Variables

Light vs. Dense NAPL

Standard Pump-and-Treat Option

In Situ Option Destroys Contaminants

Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid




Installation and Startup

Operations and Monitoring


Lagoon Bioremediation

Treatment Options

Feasibility Testing

Design Considerations

Oxygen Injection

Sludge Suspension

Sludge Shearing

Nutrient Supply

Operation and Monitoring


Vadose Zone Bioremediation




Design Considerations

Process Monitoring


Future Trends in Development: The Road Ahead

How We Got Here

Specific Biostimulations


Advanced Acclimations and Bacterial Enzymes

Microbial Chelants and Surfactants

Genetic Engineering

Sequencing Treatments

Vadose Zone Treatment

The Road Ahead

Metals Bioremediation



Mixed Waste

In Situ Bioremediation


Enhanced Anaerobic

Enhanced Aerobic

Sequencing Anaerobic / Aerobic


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic
SCIENCE / Environmental Science