In this book, the author discusses a range of common neurodevelopmental disorders affecting young people - autism, depression, schizophrenia, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder - from the unique perspective of their proposed common origin in the function and dysfunction of the brain's frontostriatal system.
Throughout the book, the author systematically compares and contrasts them from a biological, clinical and evolutionary standpoint, viewing them as extensions of normal personality attributes, which, in less extreme form, may possess certain behavioural advantages, explaining their persistence in the general population. The result is a unique, up-to-date, and wide-ranging discussion of these disorders that draws upon biology, genetics, neuropsychology, neuropathology, neuroimaging, and clinical presentation and treatment. It will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and practitioners in neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry, psychiatry, and clinical psychology.
'This book will increase the knowledge of most people who deal with patients with these six disorders and should therefore improve their management. I recommend it for the reference shelf and for the personal library of anyone interested in the theoretical basis of emotional problems.' - The British Journal of Psychiatry
Preface. Part 1: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Behavioural Neurology, and Other Preliminary Issues. Introduction. A Proliferation of Disciplines. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioural Neurology. Neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychology. Behavioural Neurology. Heritability and Genetics. Disease, Syndromes, Symptoms and Diagnosis. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 2: The Frontal Cortex and the Control of Behaviour. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Hierarchical Organization in Preparation for Action. Action Schemata. The Prefrontal Cortex. Five Parallel, Segregated Circuits. Skeletomotor Circuit. Oculomotor Circuit. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Circuit. Lateral Orbitofrontal Circuit. Anterior Cingulated Circuit. The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Circuit. The Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex. Recognition of Reinforcing Stimuli. Stimulus-reinforcer Learning. Coding for Changes in Reinforcement Contingencies. Emotionality, Personality and Automatic Functions. The Mesial and Anterior Cingulated Circuit. Supplementary Motor Area and Premotor Area. Action, Consciousness and Attention. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 3: The Basal Ganglia. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Phsiology of the Basal Ganglia. Direct and indirect Pathways. Functions of the Basal Ganglia. Supplementary Motor Area and Basal Ganglia. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 4: Tourette's Syndrome. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Tics. Rating Scale of Severity. Age of Onset and Prevalence. Comorbidity. Familial and Genetic Aspects. Pathophysiology of Tourette's Syndrome. Neuropsychological Deficits. Neurochemistry, Pharmacology and Treatment. Tourette's Syndrome - A Syndrome of Developmental Delay? Adaptive Aspects of Tourette's Syndrome. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 5: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Onset and Prevalence. Obsessions and Compulsions. Rating Scales of Severity. Obsessive Compulsive Personality. A Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Comorbidity. Genetics. Neuropsychology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Neuropathology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Neurochemistry of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Frontostriatal Circuitry and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Treatment. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 6: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Diagnostic Considerations. Symptomatology. Rating Scales of Severity. Prevalence. Adult Onset. Comorbidity. Genetics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuroimaging Studies. Neuropsychology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Attentional Problems. Inhibitory, Reward and Activation Systems. Neurochemistry and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Evolutionary Adaptive Aspects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 7: Schizophrenia: A Disorder of Thought. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Symptomatology of Schizophrenia. Positive Symptoms. Negative Symptoms. Hallucinations. Delusional Beliefs. Rating Scales of Severity. Structural and Functional Anomalies of the Brain in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia a Disorder of Interconnectivity. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia. Motor Deficits in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia As a Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Minor Physical Anomalies in Schizophrenia. Childhood Schizophrenia. Late-Onset Schizophrenia. Genetics of Schizophrenia. the Neuropsychiatry of Schizophrenia. Serotonin. Dopamine. Glutamate. Acetycholine. Noradrenaline. Medication. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 8: Autism. Introduction. Evolving Concepts in the Study of Autism. Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Autism: General Features. Rating Scaled of Severity. Prevalence of Autism. Comorbidities and Causative Medical Conditions. Theory of Mind in Autism. Language and Autism. Repetitive Behaviour
From being an area primarily on the periphery of mainstream behavioural and cognitive science, neuropsychology has developed in recent years into an area of central concern for a range of disciplines.
We are witnessing not only a revolution in the way in which brain-behaviour-cognition relationships are viewed, but also a widening of interest concerning developments in neuropsychology on the part of a range of workers in a variety of fields.
Major advances in brain-imaging techniques and the cognitive modelling of the impairments following brain injury promise a wider understanding of the nature of the representation of cognition and behaviour in the damaged and undamaged brain.
Neuropsychology is now centrally important for those working with brain-damaged people, but the very rate of expansion in the area makes it difficult to keep with findings from the current research.
The aim of the Brain, Behaviour and Cognition series is to publish a wide range of books that present comprehensive and up-to-date overviews of current developments in specific areas of interest.
These books will be of particular interest to those working with the brain-damaged. It is the editors' intention that undergraduates, postgraduates, clinicians and researchers in psychology, speech pathology, and medicine will find this series a useful source of information on important current developments.
The authors and editors of the books in the series are experts in their respective fields, working at the forefront of contemporary research. They have produced texts that are accessible and scholarly. We thank them for their contribution and their hard work in fulfilling the aims of the series.