This Special Issue is concerned with the effects of three emotional states (positive affect; anxiety; and depression) on performance. More specifically, the contributors focus on the potential mediating effects of attention and of executive processes of working memory. The evidence discussed suggests that anxiety and depression both impair the executive functions of shifting and inhibition, in part due to task-irrelevant processing (e.g., rumination; worry). In contrast, positive affect seems to enhance the shifting function and does not impair the inhibition function. The complicating role of motivational intensity is also discussed, as are implications for future research.
N. Derakshan, M.W. Eysenck, Introduction to the Special Issue: Emotional States, Attention, and Working Memory. C. Fales, K. Becerril, K. Luking, D. Barch, Emotional Stimulus Processing in Trait Anxiety is Modulated by Stimulus Valence During a Working Memory Task. L. Visu-Petra, I. Tincas, L. Cheie, O. Benga, Anxiety and Visual-spatial Memory Updating in Young Children: An Investigation Using Emotional Facial Expressions. T.L. Ansari, N. Derakshan, Anxiety Impairs Inhibitory Control But Not Volitional Action Control. Y. Bar-Haim, A. Kareem, D. Lamy, D. Zakay, When Time Slows Down: The Influence of Threat on Time Perception in Anxiety. E. De Lissnyder, E.H.W. Koster, N. Derakshan, R. De Raedt, The Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Executive Control Impairments in Response to Emotional and Non-emotional Information. J. Joormann, I.H. Gotlib, Emotion Regulation in Depression: Relation to Cognitive Inhibition. K. Johnson, C. Waugh, B. Frederickson, Smile to See the Forest: Facially Expressed Positive Emotions Broaden Cognition. P. Gable, E. Harmon-Jones, Implications of the Motivational Dimensional Model of Affect for Breadth of Attention, Memory, and Cognitive Categorisation. A.C. Savine, S.M. Beck, B.G. Edwards, K.S. Chiew, T.S. Braver, Enhancement of Cognitive Control by Approach and Avoidance Motivational States. G. Matthews, S.E. Campbell, Dynamic Relationships Between Stress and Working Memory.