Theories of citizenship from the West – pre-eminently those by T.H. Marshall – provide only a limited insight into East Asian political history.
The Marshallian trajectory – juridical, political and social rights – was not repeated in Asia and the late nineteenth-century debate about liberalism and citizenship among intellectuals in Japan and China was eventually stifled by war, colonialism and authoritarian governments (both nationalist and communist). Subsequent attempts to import western-style democratic values and citizenship were to a large extent failures. Social rights have rarely been systematically incorporated into the political ideology and administrative framework of ruling governments. In reality, the predominant concern of both the state elite and the ordinary citizens was economic development and a modicum of material well-being rather than civil liberties. The developmental state and its politics take precedence in the everyday political process of most East Asian societies.
These essays provide a systematic and comparative account of the tensions between rapid economic growth and citizenship, and the ways in which those tensions are played out in civil society.
Introduction: East Asia and Citizenship by Chang Kyung-Sup and Bryan S. Turner Part I: East Asia and Citizenship in Perspective 1. National and Social Citizenship: Some Structural and Cultural Problems with Modern Citizenship by Bryan S. Turner 2. Colonialism, Revolution, Development: A Historical Perspective on Citizenship in Political Struggles in Eastern Asia by Arif Dirlik 3. Different Beds, One Dream? State–Society Relationships and Citizenship Regimes in East Asia by Chang Kyung-Sup Part II: China, Taiwan, Hong Kong 4. Community Citizens or Egoistic Men: Property Rights Activism in China’s New Urban Neighbourhoods by Ching Kwan Lee and Peng Chen 5. Corporate Citizenship in Contemporary China: Social Responsibility for Saving Jobs by Gu Shengzu, Yang Wei, and Hong Qunlian 6. Transnational or Compatriotic Bourgeoisie? Taiwanese Entrepreneurs and their Contested Citizenship Across the Taiwan Strait by Hsiu-hua Shen 7. The Making of Citizenship in a Divided Nation: Neoliberal Citizenship in Hong Kong and National Citizenship in China by Alvin Y. So and Su Xianjia Part III: Japan and Koreas 8. Social Citizenship in Action: Gender and Political Economy of Social-Care Policy Reforms in Japan by Ito Peng 9. The Growth and Erosion of Japanese Identity in Ryukyu: a Citizenship Perspective by Choe Hyun 10. Developmental Citizenship in Perspective: The South Korean Case and Beyond by Chang Kyung-Sup 11. The Emergence of the ‘Multicultural Family’ and Genderized Citizenship in South Korea by Kim Hyun Mee 12. Circumstantial Citizens: North Korean ‘Migrants’ in South Korea by Yoon In-Jin Part IV: Conclusion 13. Whither East Asian Citizenship? by Bryan S. Turner and Chang Kyung-Sup. Index.