Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

Series Editor: Stephen C. Berkwitz

Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism is a comprehensive study of the Buddhist tradition. The series explores this complex and extensive tradition from a variety of perspectives, using a range of different methodologies. The series is diverse in its focus, including historical, philological, cultural, and sociological investigations into the manifold features and expressions of Buddhism worldwide. It also presents works of constructive and reflective analysis, including the role of Buddhist thought and scholarship in a contemporary, critical context and in the light of current social issues. The series is expansive and imaginative in scope, spanning more than two and a half millennia of Buddhist history. It is receptive to all research works that are of significance and interest to the broader field of Buddhist Studies.

Some of the titles in the series are published in association with the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, which conducts and promotes rigorous teaching and research into all forms of the Buddhist tradition.

Editorial Advisory Board:

James A. Benn, McMaster University, Canada

Jinhua Chen, The University of British Columbia, Canada

Rupert Gethin, University of Bristol, UK

Peter Harvey, University of Sunderland, UK

Sallie King, James Madison University, USA

Anne Klein, Rice University, USA

Lori Meeks, University of Southern California, USA;

Ulrich Pagel, School of Oriental and African Studies, UK

John Powers, Australian National University, Australia;

Juliane Schober, Arizona State University, USA

Vesna A. Wallace, Oxford University, UK

Michael Zimmermann, University of Hamburg, Germany

  • Ethical Practice, Religious Reform, and the Buddhist Art of Living in Nepal

    Seeing Things as They Are

    By Lauren Leve

    Theravada has experienced a powerful and far-reaching revival, especially among the Newar Buddhist laity, many of whom are reorganizing their lives according to its precepts, practices and ideals. This book documents these far-reaching social and personal transformations and links them to…

    Hardback – 2016-02-01 
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

  • Engendering the Buddhist State

    Reconstructions of Cambodian History

    By Ashley Thompson

    Drawing from more than a decade of field and archival research, this monograph concerns Cambodian history and historiography, with an ultimate aim to broadening and deepening bases for understanding the Cambodian Theravadin politico-cultural complex. The book takes the form of an interdisciplinary…

    Hardback – 2015-10-31 
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

  • Buddhism in Australia

    Traditions in Change

    Edited by Cristina Rocha, Michelle Barker

    The number of Buddhists in Australia has grown dramatically in recent years. In 2006, Buddhists accounted for 2.1 per cent of Australia's population, almost doubling the 1996 figures, and making it the fastest growing religion in the country. This book analyses the arrival and localisation of…

    Paperback – 2015-05-22
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  • Emptiness Appraised

    A Critical Study of Nagarjuna's Philosophy

    By David F. Burton

    Emptiness means that all entities are empty of, or lack, inherent existence - entities have a merely conceptual, constructed existence. Though Nagarjuna advocates the Middle Way, his philosophy of emptiness nevertheless entails nihilism, and his critiques of the Nyaya theory of knowledge are shown…

    Paperback – 2015-04-27
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  • Tibetan Buddhism in Diaspora

    Cultural re-signification in practice and institutions

    By Ana Cristina O. Lopes

    The imperialist ambitions of China – which invaded Tibet in the late 1940s – have sparked the spectacular spread of Tibetan Buddhism worldwide, and especially in western countries. This work is a study on the malleability of a particular Buddhist tradition; on its adaptability in new contexts. The…

    Hardback – 2014-12-17
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  • Women in Pali Buddhism

    Walking the Spiritual Paths in Mutual Dependence

    By Pascale Engelmajer

    The Pali tradition presents a diverse and often contradictory picture of women. This book examines women’s roles as they are described in the Pali canon and its commentaries. Taking into consideration the wider socio-religious context and drawing from early brahmanical literature and epigraphical…

    Hardback – 2014-10-24
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  • Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha

    Struggle for Liberation in the Therigatha

    By Kathryn R. Blackstone

    A detailed exploration of the quest for liberation on the part of the early bhikkunis. Only text in the Buddhist tradition of known female authorship. Important to anyone investigating women's own perspective on their religion. Also provides a clear statement about how renunciants understand…

    Paperback – 2014-05-19
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  • Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain

    Transplantation, Development and Adaptation

    By David N Kay

    This book analyses the transplantation, development and adaptation of the two largest Tibetan and Zen Buddhist organizations currently active on the British religious landscape: the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) and the Order of Buddhist Contemplatives (OBC). The key contributions of recent…

    Paperback – 2014-04-03
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  • Buddhist Practice and Visual Culture

    The Visual Rhetoric of Borobudur

    By Julie Gifford

    Providing an overall interpretation of the Buddhist monument Borobudur in Indonesia, this book looks at Mahayana Buddhist religious ideas and practices that could have informed Borobudur, including both the narrative reliefs and the Buddha images. The author explores a version of the classical…

    Paperback – 2014-03-21
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  • Buddhist and Christian?

    An Exploration of Dual Belonging

    By Rose Drew

    The last century witnessed a gradual but profound transformation of the West's religious landscape. In today's context of diversity, people are often influenced by, and sometimes even claim to belong to, more than one religious tradition. Buddhism and Christianity is a particularly prevalent and…

    Paperback – 2014-03-10
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  • Buddhism in Canada

    Edited by Bruce Matthews

    Buddhism has become a major religion in Canada over the last half-century. The 'ethnic Buddhism' associated with immigrant Asian people is the most important aspect, but there is also a growing constituency of Euro-Canadian Buddhists seriously interested in the faith. This insightful study&…

    Paperback – 2014-02-18
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  • The Spread of Tibetan Buddhism in China

    Charisma, Money, Enlightenment

    By Dan Smyer Yu

    Focusing on contemporary Tibetan Buddhist revivals in the Tibetan regions of the Sichuan and Qinghai Provinces in China, this book explores the intricate entanglements of the Buddhist revivals with cultural identity, state ideology, and popular imagination of Tibetan Buddhist spirituality in…

    Paperback – 2014-01-10
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  • Reason and Experience in Tibetan Buddhism

    Mabja Jangchub Tsöndrü and the Traditions of the Middle Way

    By Thomas Doctor

    Based on newly discovered texts, this book explores the barely known but tremendously influential thought of the Tibetan Buddhist teacher, Mabja Jangchub Tsöndrü (d. 1185).This Tibetan Buddhist master exercised significant influence on the interpretation of Madhyamaka thinking in Tibet during the…

    Hardback – 2013-12-11
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  • Death and Reincarnation in Tibetan Buddhism

    In-Between Bodies

    By Tanya Zivkovic

    Contextualising the seemingly esoteric and exotic aspects of Tibetan Buddhist culture within the everyday, embodied and sensual sphere of religious praxis, this book centres on the social and religious lives of deceased Tibetan Buddhist lamas. It explores how posterior forms – corpses, relics,…

    Hardback – 2013-10-04
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  • Imaging Wisdom

    Seeing and Knowing in the Art of Indian Buddhism

    By Jacob N Kinnard

    This book contributes to the history of religions and Buddhist studies fields by focussing on what is a far too frequently ignored aspect of religious experience: visual images.…

    Paperback – 2013-09-09
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  • The Refutation of the Self in Indian Buddhism

    Candrakirti on the Selflessness of Persons

    By James Duerlinger

    Since the Buddha did not fully explain the theory of persons that underlies his teaching, in later centuries a number of different interpretations were developed. This book presents the interpretation by the celebrated Indian Buddhist philosopher, Candrakirti (ca. 570–650 C.E.). Candrakirti’s…

    Hardback – 2012-11-26
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  • The Notion of Ditthi in Theravada Buddhism

    The Point of View

    By Paul Fuller

    The notion of 'view' or 'opinion' (ditthi) as an obstacle to 'seeing things as they are' is a central concept in Buddhist thought. This book considers the two ways in which the notion of views are usually understood. Are we to understand right-view as a correction of wrong-views (the opposition…

    Paperback – 2012-11-15
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  • New Buddhist Movements in Thailand

    Towards an Understanding of Wat Phra Dhammakaya and Santi Asoke

    By Rory Mackenzie

    Vastly different in belief and practice, two new Buddhist religious movements in Thailand, namely the Wat Phra Dhammakaya and Santi Asoke emerged in Thailand in the 1970s at a time of political uncertainty, social change and increasing dissatisfaction with the Thai Sangha and its leadership.…

    Paperback – 2012-09-13
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  • Tibetan Rituals of Death

    Buddhist Funerary Practices

    By Margaret Gouin

    This book describes and analyses the structure and performance of Tibetan Buddhist death rituals, and situates that performance within the wider context of Buddhist death practices generally. Drawing on a detailed and systematic comparative survey of existing records of Tibetan funerary practices,…

    Paperback – 2012-03-29
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  • Environmental Ethics in Buddhism

    A Virtues Approach

    By Pragati Sahni

    Environmental Ethics in Buddhism presents a logical and thorough examination of the metaphysical and ethical dimensions of early Buddhist literature. The author determines the meaning of nature in the early Buddhist context from general Buddhist teachings on dhamma, paticcasamuppada, samsara and…

    Paperback – 2011-11-18
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  • Buddhist Monasticism in East Asia

    Places of Practice

    Edited by James A. Benn, Lori Meeks, James Robson

    The area of Buddhist monasticism has long attracted the interest of Buddhist studies scholars and historians, but the interpretation of the nature and function of monasteries across diverse cultures and vast historical periods remains a focus for debate. This book provides a multifaceted discussion…

    Paperback – 2011-09-16
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  • Mindfulness in Early Buddhism

    New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources

    By Tse-fu Kuan

    This book identifies what is meant by sati (smrti), usually translated as ‘mindfulness’, in early Buddhism, and examines its soteriological functions and its central role in the early Buddhist practice and philosophy.  Using textual analysis and criticism, it takes new approaches to the…

    Paperback – 2011-09-16
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  • Power, Wealth and Women in Indian Mahayana Buddhism

    The Gandavyuha-sutra

    By Douglas Osto

    This book examines the concepts of power, wealth and women in the important Mahayana Buddhist scripture known as the Gandavyuha-sutra, and relates these to the text’s social context in ancient Indian during the Buddhist Middle Period (0–500 CE). Employing contemporary textual theory, worldview…

    Paperback – 2011-09-15
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  • The Cultural Practices of Modern Chinese Buddhism

    Attuning the Dharma

    By Francesca Tarocco

    Buddhism in China during the late Qing and Republican period remained a powerful cultural and religious force. Francesca Tarocco is a rising star in this field and offers an innovative high-quality piece of work that presents a new perspective on the influence of Buddhism on Chinese culture.…

    Paperback – 2011-02-24
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  • Buddhist Nuns in Taiwan and Sri Lanka

    A Critique of the Feminist Perspective

    By Wei-Yi Cheng

    Taking a comparative approach, this fieldwork-based study explores the lives and thoughts of Buddhist nuns in present-day Taiwan and Sri Lanka. The author examines the postcolonial background and its influence on the modern situation, as well as surveying the main historical, economic, and social…

    Paperback – 2011-02-10
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  • Buddhist Manuscript Cultures

    Knowledge, Ritual, and Art

    Edited by Stephen C. Berkwitz, Juliane Schober, Claudia Brown

    Buddhist Manuscript Cultures explores how religious and cultural practices in premodern Asia were shaped by literary and artistic traditions as well as by Buddhist material culture. This study of Buddhist texts focuses on the significance of their material forms rather than their doctrinal contents…

    Paperback – 2011-01-20
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

  • The Philosophy of Desire in the Buddhist Pali Canon

    By David Webster

    David Webster explores the notion of desire as found in the Buddhist Pali Canon. Beginning by addressing the idea of a 'paradox of desire', whereby we must desire to end desire, the varieties of desire that are articulated in the Pali texts are examined. A range of views of desire, as found in…

    Paperback – 2011-01-20
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  • The Concept of the Buddha

    Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory

    By Guang Xing

    Guang Xing gives an analysis of one of the fundamental Mahayana Buddhist teachings, namely the three bodies of the Buddha (the trikaya Theory), which is considered the foundation of Mahayana philosophy. He examines how and why the philosophical concept of three bodies was formed,…

    Paperback – 2010-09-17
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  • Moral Theory in Santideva's Siksasamuccaya

    Cultivating the Fruits of Virtue

    By Barbra R. Clayton

    This important text analyzes the moral theory of the seventh century Indian Mahayana master, Santideva, author of the well-known religious poem, the Bodhicaryavatara (Entering the Path of Enlightenment) as well as the significant, but relatively overlooked, Siksasamuccaya (Compendium of…

    Paperback – 2010-09-12
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  • Buddhist Studies from India to America

    Essays in Honor of Charles S. Prebish

    Edited by Damien Keown

    Buddhist Studies from India to America covers four important areas of Buddhist Studies: Vinaya Studies and Ethics, the history of Buddhist schools, Western Buddhism, and Inter-religious dialogue. These are the main areas which Charles S. Prebish has either inaugurated or helped to define; and…

    Paperback – 2010-09-12
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  • Buddhist Thought and Applied Psychological Research

    Transcending the Boundaries

    Edited by D.K. Nauriyal, Michael S. Drummond, Y.B. Lal

    Written by leading scholars and including a foreword by the Dalai Lama, this book explores the interface between Buddhist studies and the uses of Buddhist principles and practices in psychotherapy and consciousness studies. The contributors present a compelling collection of articles that…

    Paperback – 2010-09-12
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  • The Buddhist Theory of Self-Cognition

    By Zhihua Yao

    This highly original work explores the concept of self-awareness or self-consciousness in Buddhist thought. Its central thesis is that the Buddhist theory of self-cognition originated in a soteriological discussion of omniscience among the Mahasamghikas, and then evolved into a topic of…

    Paperback – 2009-04-29
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  • Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka

    Edited by Mahinda Deegalle

    Interdisciplinary in its approach, this book explores the dilemmas that Buddhism faces in relation to the continuing ethnic conflict and violence in modern Sri Lanka. Prominent scholars in the fields of anthropology, history, Buddhist studies and Pali examine multiple dimensions of the problem…

    Paperback – 2009-04-29
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  • Discourse and Ideology in Medieval Japanese Buddhism

    Edited by Richard K. Payne, Taigen Dan Leighton

    The medieval period of Japanese religious history is commonly known as one in which there was a radical transformation of the religious culture. This book suggests an alternate approach to understanding the dynamics of that transformation. One main topic of analysis focuses on what Buddhism - its…

    Paperback – 2009-04-29
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  • Buddhist Rituals of Death and Rebirth

    Contemporary Sri Lankan Practice and Its Origins

    By Rita Langer

    In Buddhist thought and practice, death has always been a central concept. This book provides a careful and thorough analysis of the rituals and social customs surrounding death in the Theravada tradition of Sri Lanka. Rita Langer describes the rituals of death and rebirth and investigates their…

    Paperback – 2009-04-29
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  • Theravada Buddhism and the British Encounter

    Religious, Missionary and Colonial Experience in Nineteenth Century Sri Lanka

    By Elizabeth Harris

    This major new work explores the British encounter with Buddhism in nineteenth century Sri Lanka, examining the way Buddhism was represented and constructed in the eyes of the British scholars, officials, travellers and religious seekers who first encountered it. Tracing the three main historical…

    Paperback – 2009-04-29
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  • Buddhism in the Public Sphere

    Reorienting Global Interdependence

    By Peter D. Hershock

    The core teachings and practices of Buddhism are systematically directed toward developing keen and caring insight into the relational or interdependent nature of all things. Hershock applies Buddhist thought to reflect on the challenges to public good, created by emerging social, economic, and…

    Paperback – 2009-04-21
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  • Beyond Enlightenment

    Buddhism, Religion, Modernity

    By Richard Cohen

    The vast majority of books on Buddhism describe the Buddha using the word enlightened, rather than awakened. This bias has resulted in Buddhism becoming generally perceived as the eponymous religion of enlightenment. Beyond Enlightenment is a sophisticated study of some of the underlying…

    Paperback – 2009-04-21
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  • Buddhism, Power and Political Order

    Edited by Ian Harris

    Weber's claim that Buddhism is an otherworldly religion is only partially true. Early sources indicate that the Buddha was sometimes diverted from supramundane interests to dwell on a variety of politically-related matters. The significance of Asoka Maurya as a paradigm for later traditions of…

    Paperback – 2009-04-21
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  • British Buddhism

    Teachings, Practice and Development

    By Robert Bluck

    British Buddhism presents a useful insight into contemporary British Buddhist practice. It provides a survey of the seven largest Buddhist traditions in the United Kingdom, including the Forest Sangha (Theravada) and the Samatha Trust (Theravada), the Serene Reflection Meditation tradition (Soto…

    Paperback – 2008-08-01
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  • Religion, Medicine and the Human Embryo in Tibet

    By Frances Garrett

    This book explores the cultural history of embryology in Tibet, in culture, religion, art and literature, and what this reveals about its medicine and religion. Filling a significant gap in the literature this is the first in-depth exploration of Tibetan medical history in the English language. It…

    Hardback – 2008-04-25
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  • Indian Buddhist Theories of Persons

    Vasubandhu's Refutation of the Theory of a Self

    By James Duerlinger

    In this book, Vasubandhu's classic work Refutation of the Theory of a Self is translated and provided with an introduction and commentary. The translation, the first into a modern Western language from the Sanskrit text, is intended for use by those who wish to begin a careful philosophical study…

    Paperback – 2006-04-18
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  • The Buddhist Unconscious

    The Alaya-vijñana in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought

    By William S. Waldron

    This is the story of fifth century CE India, when the Yogacarin Buddhists tested the awareness of unawareness, and became aware of human unawareness to an extraordinary degree. They not only explicitly differentiated this dimension of mental processes from conscious cognitive processes, but also…

    Paperback – 2006-04-06
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  • Buddhist Phenomenology

    A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun

    By Dan Lusthaus

    A richly complex study of the Yogacara tradition of Buddhism, divided into five parts: the first on Buddhism and phenomenology, the second on the four basic models of Indian Buddhist thought, the third on karma, meditation and epistemology, the fourth on the Trimsika and its translations, and…

    Paperback – 2006-04-06
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  • Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy

    Tsongkhapa's Quest for the Middle Way

    By Thupten Jinpa

    The work explores the historical and intellectual context of Tsongkhapa's philosophy and addresses the critical issues related to questions of development and originality in Tsongkhapa's thought. It also deals extensively with one of Tsongkhapa's primary concerns, namely his attempts to demonstrate…

    Paperback – 2006-01-20
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  • Action Dharma

    New Studies in Engaged Buddhism

    Edited by Damien Keown, Charles S. Prebish, Christopher Queen

    Action Dharma charts the emergence of a new chapter in an ancient faith - the rise of social service and political activism in Buddhist Asia and the West. Fourteen new essays treat the historical origins, global range, teachings and practices, and leaders and organizations that make up the latest…

    Paperback – 2003-05-29
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

  • Zen War Stories

    By Brian Victoria

    Following the critically acclaimed Zen at War (1997), Brian Victoria explores the intimate relationship between Japanese institutional Buddhism and militarism during the Second World War.Victoria reveals for the first time, through examination of the wartime writings of the Japanese military itself…

    Paperback – 2002-12-19
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism

  • Developments in Australian Buddhism

    Facets of the Diamond

    By Michelle Spuler

    This book examines the adaptation of Buddhism to the Australian sociocultural context. To gain insight into this process of cross-cultural adaptation, issues arising in the development of Diamond Sangha Zen Buddhist groups (one of the largest Zen lineages in the West) in Australia are…

    Hardback – 2002-09-19
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  • Religious Motivation and the Origins of Buddhism

    A Social-Psychological Exploration of the Origins of a World Religion

    By Torkel Brekke

    Why did people in North India from the 5th century BC choose to leave the world and join the sect of the Buddha? This is the first book to apply the insights of social psychology in order to understand the religious motivation of the people who constituted the early Buddhist community. It also…

    Paperback – 2002-08-29
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  • In Defense of Dharma

    Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka

    By Tessa J. Bartholomeusz

    This is the first book to examine war and violence in Sri Lanka through the lens of cross-cultural studies on just-war tradition and theory. In a study that is textual, historical and anthropological, it is argued that the ongoing Sinhala-Tamil conflict is in actual practice often justified by a…

    Paperback – 2002-08-22
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    Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism