1st Edition

Victorian Material Culture

Edited By Deborah Wynne, Louisa Yates Copyright 2022

    From chatelaines to whale blubber, ice making machines to stained glass, this six-volume collection will be of interest to the scholar, student or general reader alike - anyone who has an urge to learn more about Victorian things. The set brings together a range of primary sources on Victorian material culture and discusses the most significant developments in material history from across the nineteenth century. The collection will demonstrate the significance of objects in the everyday lives of the Victorians and addresses important questions about how we classify and categorise nineteenth-century things. This collection brings together a range of primary sources on Victorian material and culture. This volume, ‘Manufactured Things’, will consider mass produced industrial and domestic objects.

    Part 1. The Context of Manufacturing in Victorian Britain

    1. ‘Peel’s Velveteens’, Punch, vol. 4 (1843), p. 36

    2. George Dodd, Days at the Factories, or the Manufacturing Industries of Great Britain Described (London, 1843) [extract], pp. 1-16.

    3. Richard H. Horne, ‘The Female School of Design in the Capital of the World’, Household Words, vol. 2 (15 March 1851), pp. 578-81.

    4. ‘Calico Printing’ in Charles Tomlinson (ed.), Tomlinson’s Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures, vol. 2, (1852-4), p. 279

    5. John Capper, ‘The Northern Wizard’, Household Words, vol. 3, no 189 (5 November 1853), pp. 225-228

    6. Anon, ‘Help for Women’, National Magazine (May 1861): pp. 32-34.

    7. Karl Marx, ‘The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof’, Capital (1867) (London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co. Ltd., 1902) pp.41-50.

    8. Anon. ‘Sewing Machines’, All the Year Round vol. 1 (new series) 27 March 1869, pp. 395-397.

    9. Lyon Playfair, ‘On Patents and the New Patent Bill’, Nineteenth Century (April 1877), pp. 317-19, 321-23, 325-26.

    10. J.T. Slugg, Reminiscences of Manchester Fifty Years Ago (Manchester, 1881) pp. 27-28, 37-38.

    Part 2. Textiles: Fabrics

    2.1 Fabrics

    11. Edward Baines, History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain (London, 1835), pp. 335-337358.

    12. Anon, ‘A Day at the Nottingham Lace Manufactories’, The Penny Magazine (26 March 1843), pp. 113, 115-120.

    13. Charles Dickens and W.H. Wills, ‘Spitalfields’, Household Words, vol. 3 (5 April 1851), pp. 25-30.

    14. John Capper, ‘British Cotton’, Household Words, vol. 5, no. 106 (3 April 1852), pp. 51-54

    15. Elizabeth Gaskell, North and South (1855) (London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1897), pp.54-55, 97-98.

    16. Edward Baines, ‘On the Woollen Manufacture of England; With Special Reference to the Leeds Clothing District’, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 22, no. 1 (March 1859), pp. 1-9, 11-14.

    17. ‘The Diary of John Ward of Clitheroe, Weaver 1860-64’, rpt in Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. 5 (1953): 176-184.

    18. ‘Cotton Printing’, The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 5 (London: c. 1870)

    19. ‘Wool Machinery’, The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 4 (London: c. 1870)

    20. ‘Weaving Looms’, The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 4 (London: c. 1870)

    21. Anon, ‘Honiton Lace’, The Gentleman’s Magazine (January 1871), pp. 164-171.

    22. William Morris, ‘Textile Fabrics’ [1884] in William Morris, Architecture, Industry and Wealth: Collected Papers (London: Longmans, Green S and Co., 1902), pp. 148-49, 161-63.

    23. Anon, ‘French Lace’, Bow Bells (9 November 1894), p. 467

    2.2. Clothing

    24. Thomas Hood, ‘The Song of the Shirt’ (1843)

    25. Harriet Martineau, ‘Rainbow Making’, Household Words, vol. 4 (14 February 1852), pp. 485-490.

    26. Samuel Sidney, ‘A Ladies’ Warehouse’, Household Words, vol. 12 (27 October 1855), pp. 301-305.

    27. Mrs Henry Wood, Mrs Halliburton’s Troubles [1862] (London & New York: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., n.d.) pp. 99-100,107-108, 122, 134-135.

    28. Anon., ‘Gloves’, All The Year Round, vol. 9 (27 June 1863), pp. 425, 428-430.

    29. Anon., ‘A Crinoline Manufactory’, Once A Week, 23 January 1864, pp. 124-126.

    30. Edith Simcox, ‘Eight Years of Co-operative Shirtmaking’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. 15 (June 1884), pp. 1037-54.

    31. Ada Heather-Bigg, ‘Women and the Glove Trade’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. 30 (December 1891), pp. 939-44, 946-47.

    2.3 Carpets

    32. ‘Carpets’ in Reports by the Juries on the Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition was Divided, 2 vols (London: Spicer Brothers; W. Clowes and Sons, 1852), pp. 1037-1040.

    33. Professor Archer, ‘On the Progress of our Art Industries’, The Art Journal (June 1875), pp. 177-178

    34. Harold Cox, ‘How Real Axminster is Made – a Visit to the only Factory in England’, Time: A Monthly Magazine, October 1890, pp. 1067-71

    35. David Paterson, The Colour Printing of Carpet Yarns: A Useful Manual for Colour-Chemists and Textile Printers (London: Scott and Greenwood, 1900), pp. 81-87.

    2.4 Paper

    36. Charles Dickens and Mark Lemon, ‘A Paper-Mill’, Household Words, vol. 1 (31 August 1850), pp. 529-531

    37. Wallpaper, The Art Journal Illustrated Catalogue: The Industry of All Nations (London, 1851) p.129, 143.

    38. Harriet Martineau, ‘Household Scenery’, Household Words, vol. 5 (14 August 1852), pp. 513-519.

    39. ‘Cardboard’ – Tomlinson’s Cyclopaedia of useful arts and manufactures, vol. 2, ed. Charles Tomlinson (London: George Virtue, 1852-4), pp. 321-24

    40. Harriet Martineau, ‘How to Get Paper’, Household Words, vol. 10 (28 October 1854), pp. 241-245.

    41. Anon. ‘Cigarette’, London Journal (1 November 1869), p. 229.

    Part 3. Metal Goods: Pins and Needles

    3.1 Pins and Needles

    42. Anon., ‘Pin-Making (from Sir George Head’s Home Tour)’, The Mirror, vol. 28 (9th July 1836), pp. 29-30

    43. Anon., ‘A Second Day at the Birmingham Factories’, Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 13 (28th December 1844), pp. 501-502.

    44. Harriet Martineau, ‘Needles’, Household Words, vol. 4 (28th February 1852), pp. 540-46

    45. Anon., ‘Pins’, Belgravia: A London Magazine, vol. 6 (August 1868), pp. 300-302

    46. A. L. O. E., The Story of a Needle (London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1874), pp. 7-10.

    47. ‘Needles’ from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia, Vol. V. (New York: The Century Co., 1895) p.3956

    3.2 Cutlery

    48. Anon., ‘A Day at the Sheffield Cutlery-Works’, The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 13 (April 27 1844), pp. 161-165, 167-168.

    49. Anon., ‘Fraudulent Trade Marks’, Once a Week, vol. 8 (February 7, 1863), pp. 177-179

    50. Anon., ‘Joseph Rodgers & Sons, Limited’, The New Monthly Magazine, vol. 121 (July 1882), pp. 551-557.

    51. Henry J. Palmer., ‘Cutlery and Cutlers at Sheffield’, The English Illustrated Magazine, vol. 11 (August 1884), pp. 667-669.

    52. Anon., ‘Made in Germany’, The New Review, vol. 14 (March 1896), pp. 258-261.

    53. Joseph Rodgers & Sons, selections from the ‘Old Table Day Book’ (date approx. ‘late 1800s), Museums Sheffield.

    54. ‘Fish-slice and fork, and dessert-knife’ (Messrs. J. Rodgers & Sons, of Sheffield), Art Journal Illustrated Catalogue of the Industry of All Nations [n.d.] (London: Bradbury & Evans, George Virtue) p. 278.

    3.3 Locks and Keys

    55. Charles Chubb, Chubb’s Improved Patent Detector Lock (1832).

    56. Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil; or, the Two Nations (London: Henry Colburn, 1845), Book III, pp. 54-57.

    57. Samuel Smiles, Industrial Biography: Iron Workers and Tool Makers (London: John Murray, 1863), pp. 186-87

    58. Anon., ‘A Few Thoughts on Keys’, Cornhill Magazine, vol. 12, November 1865, pp. 623-28

    59. J. C. Tildesley, ‘A Chapter on Locks and Keys’, Once a Week, vol. 4 (9 November 1867), pp. 560-63.

    60. Anon., ‘A Midland Tour; XVII – Wolverhampton’, The Leisure Hour: a family journal of instruction and recreation, 20 July 1872, pp. 462-463

    61. Image: ‘Lock’ [Plate], The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 8 (London: [n.p.])

    3.4 Fire Ironmongery

    62. ‘Fire Irons’ and ‘Fenders, Grates, and Light Iron Castings’, in Samuel Timmins (ed.), The Resources, Products, and Industrial History of Birmingham and the Midland Hardware District; A series of reports, collected by the local industries committee of the British Association at Birmingham (London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866), pp. 662-666.

    63. Anon., ‘William S. Burton, General Furnishing Ironmonger’, The Athenaeum, no. 2171 (Jun 5, 1869), p. 780.

    64. B. W. Richardson, ‘Health at Home’, Good Words, vol. 21 (Jan 1880), pp. 98-101.

    65. Anon., ‘Musgrave & Co. (Limited), Stable Fitting and Stove Manufacturers, Belfast, London, Manchester, and Paris’, in Wyman’s Commercial Encyclopædia of Leading Manufacturers of Great Britain and their Productions; Being a Guide to Merchant Buyers All Over the World (London: Wyman, 1888), pp. 450-51.

    Part 4. Household Goods

    4.1 Ceramics

    66. Anon, ‘Leaves from the Mahogany Tree: Table Furniture (China and Glass etc.)’, All the Year Round, vol. 20 (17 October 1868), pp. 441-43.

    67. ‘Ceramic Arts’ [Plate 2], The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 4 (London: c. 1870)

    68. George Du Maurier, ‘The Six-Mark Tea-Pot’, Punch (30 October 1880) p.194.

    69. Anon, ‘China, China Everywhere’, The Pottery Gazette (1 July 1899), pp. 824-825.

    70. Arnold Bennett, Anna of the Five Towns [1902] 2nd ed. (New York: G.H. Doran, 1903), pp. 135-148.

    4.2 Glassware

    71. G. R. Porter, ‘On the Manufacture of Crown-Glass, Broad Glass, and Bottle Glass’, Treatise on the Origin, Progressive Improvement, and Present State of the Manufacture of Porcelain and Glass, (London: Longman, Brown and Green, (1832), pp. 182-187.

    72. Luke Herbert, ‘Glass’ in The Engineer’s and Mechanics Encyclopaedia, Comprehending Practical Illustrations of the Machinery and Processes Employed in Every Description of Manufacture in the British Empire, vol. 1 (London: Thomas Kelly, 1836), pp. 635-639.

    73. Anon., ‘The Falcon Glass-Works’ in The Busy Hives Around Us: A Variety of Trips and Visits to the Mine, the Workshop, and the Factory (London: James Hogg and Sons, c.1850), pp. 165-68.

    74. Anon., ‘A Glass Manufactory’, pp. 197-201 [bound pamphlet]

    4.3 Plate

    75. Alfred Crowquill, ‘The Service of Plate’, Temple Bar, vol. 20 (May 1867), pp. 272-77

    76. Anon., ‘The Age of the Electro-Plate’, Fun, vol. 5 (March 1867), p. 8.

    77. Anon., ‘Electro-Deposition’, The National Encyclopaedia: a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, vol. 5 (London: c.1870), pp. 782-86

    4.4 Soap

    78. Anon., ‘A Day at a Soap and Candle Factory’, Penny Magazine for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. 11 (January 29, 1842), pp. 41-47.

    79. ‘By Order of the Bath’, Pears Soap. Unilever Archives.

    80. ‘Some Good Reasons for Using Sunlight Soap’, Wellcome Collection, Unilever Archives,

    81. ‘Vinolia Soap’, Unilever Collections, Unilever Art.

    4.5 Candles

    82. Campbell Morfit, A Treatise on Chemistry Applied to the Manufacture of Soap and Candles, (Philadelphia: [n.p], 1856), pp. 17-21

    83. William Crookes, ‘Preface’ to Michael Faraday, The Chemical History of a Candle: a course of lectures delivered before an audience at the Royal Institution (London: Chatto and Windus, 1875), pp. v-vii.

    84. Joseph Hatton, ‘Candle-Making’, The English Illustrated Magazine, vol. 105 (Jun 1892), pp. 703-712

    85. James McNeil Whistler, ‘Price’s Candle-Works’ 1876/77, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.



    Deborah Wynne is Professor of Nineteenth-Century Literature at the University of Chester, UK