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Polymers

Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition

By J.M.G. Cowie, Valeria Arrighi

CRC Press – 2007 – 520 pages

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    978-0-8493-9813-1
    July 26th 2007

Description

Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science. Adding or amending roughly 50% of the material, this new edition strengthens its aim to contribute a comprehensive treatment by offering a wide and balanced selection of topics across all aspects of the chemistry and physics of polymer science, from synthesis and physical properties to applications.

Although the basics of polymer science remain unchanged, significant discoveries in the area of control over molecular weight, macromolecular structure and architecture, and the consequent ability to prepare materials with specific properties receive extensive mention in the third edition. Expanded chapters include controlled radical polymerizations, metallocene chemistry, and the preparation of block and graft copolymers, as well as multiarmed and dendritic structures. Reflecting the growth of polymer applications in industry, the book presents detailed examples to illustrate polymer use in electronic, biological, and medical settings. The authors introduce new understandings of rheological behavior and replace old and outmoded methods of polymer characterization with new and up-to-date techniques. Also new to this edition are a series of problems at the end of each chapter that will test whether the reader has understood the various points and in some cases expand on that knowledge. An accompanying solutions manual is also available for qualifying course adoptions.

Offering the highest quality, comprehensive coverage of polymer science in an affordable, accessible format, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide undergraduate and graduate students and professors with the most complete and current coverage of modern polymer science.

Reviews

". . . continues the tradition of a well-known respected textbook . . ."

– Mark Moloney, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, in Reviews, June 2008, Vol. 9, No. 16, Issue 1

Contents

Introduction

Birth of a Concept

Some Basic Definitions

Synthesis of Polymers

Nomenclature

Average Molar Masses and Distributions

Size and Shape

Configuration

The Glass Transition Temperature Tg and the Melting Temperature Tm

Elastomers, Fibers, and Plastics

Fiber-Forming Polymers

Plastics

Thermosetting Polymers

Elastomers

Step-Growth Polymerization

General Reactions

Reactivity of Functional Groups

Carothers Equation

Control of the Molar Mass

Stoichiometric Control of Mn

Kinetics

Molar Mass Distribution in Linear Systems

Average Molar Masses

Characteristics of Step-Growth Polymerization

Typical Step-Growth Reactions

Ring Formation

Nonlinear Step-Growth Reactions

Statistical Derivation

Comparison with Experiment

Polyurethanes

Thermosetting Polymers

Free-Radical Addition Polymerization

Addition Polymerization

Choice of Initiators

Free-Radical Polymerization

Initiators

Chain Growth

Termination

Steady-State Kinetics

High-Conversion Bulk Polymerizations

Chain Transfer

Inhibitors and Retarders

Activation Energies and the Effect of Temperature

Thermodynamics of Radical Polymerization

Heats of Polymerization

Polymerization Processes

Features of Free-Radical Polymerization

Controlled Radical Polymerization

Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerizations

Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP

Reverse ATRP

Degenerative Chain Transfer Reaction (DT)

Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT)

CRP of Vinyl Chloride

The Kinetics of CRP Processes

Application to Experimental Data

Ionic Polymerization

General Characteristics

Cationic Polymerization

Propagation by Cationic Chain Carriers

Termination

General Kinetic Scheme

Energetics of Cationic Polymerization

Telechelic Polymers via Cationic Polymerization

Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization

Stable Carbocations

Anionic Polymerization

Living Polymers

Kinetics and Molar Mass Distribution in Living Anionic Systems

Metal Alkyl Initiators

Solvent and Gegen Ion Effects

Anionic Ring-opening Polymerization

Linear Copolymers and Other Architectures

General Characteristics

Composition Drift

The Copolymer Equation

Monomer Reactivity Ratios

Reactivity Ratios and Copolymer Structure

Monomer Reactivities and Chain Initiation

Influence of Structural Effects on Monomer Reactivity Ratios

The Q-e Scheme

Alternating Copolymers

Block Copolymer Synthesis

Graft Copolymer Synthesis

Statistical and Gradient Copolymers

Complex Molecular Architectures

Dendrimers

Polymer Stereochemistry

Architecture

Orientation

Configuration

Geometric Isomerism

Conformation of Stereoregular Polymers

Factors Influencing Stereoregulation

Homogeneous Stereospecific Cationic Polymerizations

Homogeneous Stereoselective Anionic Polymerizations

Homogeneous Diene Polymerization

Summary

Polymerization Reactions Initiated by Metal Catalysts and Transfer Reactions

Polymerization Using Ziegler-Natta Catalysts

Nature of Catalyst

Nature of Active Centers

Bimetallic Mechanism

Monometallic Mechanism

Stereoregulation

Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP)

Monocyclic Monomers

Bicyclo- and Tricyclomonomers

Copolyalkenamers

Living Systems

Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP)

Aldol Group Transfer Polymerization

Metallocene Catalysts

Concluding Remarks

Polymers in Solution

Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

Ideal Mixtures of Small Molecules

Nonideal Solutions

Flory-Huggins Theory: Entropy of Mixing

Enthalpy Change on Mixing

Free Energy of Mixing

Limitations of the Flory-Huggins Theory

Phase Equilibria

Flory-Krigbaum Theory

Location of the Theta Temperature

Lower Critical Solution Temperatures

Solubility and the Cohesive Energy Density

Polymer-Polymer Mixtures

Kinetics of Phase Separation

Polymer Characterization - Molar Masses

Introduction

Molar Masses, Molecular Weights, and SI Units

Number-Average Molar Mass Mn

End-Group Assay

Colligative Properties of Solutions

Osmotic Pressure

Light Scattering

Dynamic Light Scattering

Viscosity

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Maldi

Polymer Characterization - Chain Dimensions, Structures, and Morphology

Average Chain Dimensions

Freely Jointed Chain Model

Short-range Effects

Chain Stiffness

Treatment of Dilute Solution Data

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Infrared Spectroscopy

Thermal Analysis

Wide-Angle and Small-Angle Scattering

Microscopy

The Crystalline State and Partially Ordered Structures

Introduction

Mechanism of Crystallization

Temperature and Growth Rate

Melting

Thermodynamic Parameters

Crystalline Arrangement of Polymers

Morphology and Kinetics

Morphology

Kinetics of Crystallization

Block Copolymers

Historical Development of Polymer Liquid Crystals

Liquid Crystalline Phases

Identification of the Mesophases

Lyotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Thermotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers

The Glassy State and Glass Transition

The Amorphous State

The Glassy State

Relaxation Processes in the Glassy State

Glass Transition Region

Theoretical Treatments

Dependence of Tg on Molar Mass

Structural Relaxation and Physical Aging

Rheology and Mechanical Properties

Introduction to Rheology

The Five Regions of Viscoelastic Behavior

The Viscous Region

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Models Describing Viscoelasticity

Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Amorphous Polymers

Dynamic Mechanical and Dielectric Thermal Analysis

Time-Temperature Superposition Principle

Dynamic Viscosity

A Molecular Theory for Viscoelasticity

The Reptation Model

The Elastomeric State

General Introduction

Experimental Vulcanization

Properties of Elastomers

Thermodynamic Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity

Nonideal Elastomers

Distribution Function for Polymer Conformation

Statistical Approach

Swelling of Elastomeric Networks

Network Defects

Resilience of Elastomers

Structure-Property Relations

General Considerations

Control of Tm and Tg

Relation between Tm andTg

Random Copolymers

Dependence of Tm andTg on Copolymer Composition

Block Copolymers

Plasticizers

Crystallinity and Mechanical Response

Application to Fibers, Elastomers, and Plastics

Fibers

Aromatic Polyamides

Polyethylene

Elastomers and Cross-Linked Networks

Plastics

High-temperature Speciality Polymers

Carbon Fibers

Concluding Remarks

Polymers for the Electronics Industry

Introduction

Polymer Resists for IC Fabrication

The Lithographic Process

Polymer Resists

Photolithography

Electron Beam Sensitive Resists

X-ray and Ion Sensitive Resists

Electroactive Polymers

Conduction Mechanisms

Preparation of Conductive Polymers

Polyacetylene

Poly(P-phenylene)

Polyheterocyclic Systems

Polyaniline

Poly(Phenylene Sulfide)

Poly(1,6-heptadiyne)

Applications

Photonic Applications

Light-Emitting Polymers

Nonlinear Optics

Langmuir-Blodgett Films

Optical Information Storage

Thermorecording on Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Index

Name: Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition (Paperback)CRC Press 
Description: By J.M.G. Cowie, Valeria Arrighi. Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates...
Categories: Polymer Science, Polymers & Plastics, Chemical Physics