3rd Edition

Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry

By John Leonard, Barry Lygo, Garry Procter Copyright 2013
    356 Pages 153 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    356 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Any research that uses new organic chemicals, or ones that are not commercially available, will at some time require the synthesis of such compounds. Therefore, organic synthesis is important in many areas of both applied and academic research, from chemistry to biology, biochemistry, and materials science. The third edition of a bestseller, Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry is a guide that explains the basic techniques of organic chemistry, presenting the necessary information for readers to carry out widely used modern organic synthesis reactions. This book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as industrial organic chemists, particularly those involved in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and other areas of fine chemical research. It provides the novice or nonspecialist with the often difficult-to-find information on reagent properties needed to perform general techniques. With over 80 years combined experience training and developing organic research chemists in industry and academia, the authors offer sufficient guidance for researchers to perform reactions under conditions that give the highest chance of success, including the appropriate precautions to take and proper experimental protocols. The text also covers the following topics:

    • Record keeping and equipment
    • Solvent purification and reagent preparation
    • Using gases and working with vacuum pumps
    • Purification, including crystallization and distillation
    • Small-scale and large-scale reactions
    • Characterization, including NMR spectra, melting point and boiling point, and microanalysis
    • Efficient ways to find information in the chemical literature

    With fully updated text and all newly drawn figures, the third edition provides a powerful tool for building the knowledge on the most up-to-date techniques commonly used in organic synthesis.

    General introduction

    Safety is your primary responsibility
    Safe working practice
    Safety risk assessments
    Common hazards
    Accident and emergency procedures

    Keeping records of laboratory work
    The laboratory notebook
    Keeping records of data
    Some tips on report and thesis preparation

    Equipping the laboratory and the bench
    Setting up the laboratory
    General laboratory equipment
    The individual bench
    Equipment for parallel experiments
    Equipment for controlled experimentation

    Purification and drying of solvents
    Purification of solvents
    Drying agents
    Drying of solvents

    Reagents: Preparation, purification, and handling
    Classification of reagents for handling
    Techniques for obtaining pure and dry reagents
    Techniques for handling and measuring reagents
    Preparation and titration of simple organometallic reagents and lithium amide bases
    Preparation of diazomethane

    Use of gas cylinders
    Handling gases
    Measurement of gases
    Inert gases
    Reagent gases

    Vacuum pumps
    House vacuum systems (low vacuum)
    Medium vacuum pumps
    High vacuum pumps
    Pressure measurement and regulation

    Carrying out the reaction
    Reactions with air-sensitive reagents
    Reaction monitoring
    Reactions at other than room temperature
    Driving equilibria
    Use of controlled reactor systems

    Working up the reaction
    Quenching the reaction
    Isolation of the crude product
    Data that need to be collected on the crude product prior to purification

    Flash chromatography
    Dry-column flash chromatography
    Preparative TLC
    Medium pressure and prepacked chromatography systems
    Preparative HPLC

    Small-scale reactions
    Reactions at or below room temperature
    Reactions above room temperature
    Reactions in NMR tubes
    Purification of materials

    Large-scale reactions
    Carrying out the reaction
    Workup and product isolation
    Purification of the products

    Special procedures
    Catalytic hydrogenation
    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)
    Liquid ammonia reactions
    Microwave reactions

    NMR spectra
    IR spectra
    UV spectroscopy
    Mass spectrometry
    Melting point (m.p.) and boiling point (b.p.)
    Optical rotation
    Keeping the data

    Troubleshooting: What to do when things don’t work

    The chemical literature
    The structure of the chemical literature
    Some important paper-based sources of chemical information
    Some important electronic-based sources of chemical information
    How to find chemical information
    Current awareness

    Properties of common solvents
    Properties of common gases
    Approximate pKa values for some common reagents versus common bases
    Common Bronsted acids
    Common Lewis acids
    Common reducing reagents
    Common oxidizing reagents



    John Leonard is currently a principal scientist at AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, where he is primarily involved with synthetic route design and development activities. Prior to this he was a professor of organic chemistry at the University of Salford, UK.Garry Procter is a professor and director of teaching in the School of Chemistry at the University of Manchester, UK. Before this he was director of undergraduate laboratories in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University.Barry Lygo is currently a professor of chemistry at the University of Nottingham, UK, working in the field of asymmetric catalysis and synthesis.

    Praise for Previous Editions

    "…concise and highly readable … I would recommend this book as an essential purchase for all new research students in the area of organic synthesis"
    Synthesis, June 1995

    "This book should be present in every organic chemistry research laboratory…a bargain at the price."
    Chemistry & Industry, July 1995

    "Reading this book is like having a thoughtful and smart tutor guiding all your steps in the laboratory…excellent choice.."
    Physical Sciences Educational Reviews