Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry  book cover
3rd Edition

Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry

ISBN 9781439860977
Published January 8, 2013 by CRC Press
356 Pages 153 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Any research that uses new organic chemicals, or ones that are not commercially available, will at some time require the synthesis of such compounds. Therefore, organic synthesis is important in many areas of both applied and academic research, from chemistry to biology, biochemistry, and materials science. The third edition of a bestseller, Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry is a guide that explains the basic techniques of organic chemistry, presenting the necessary information for readers to carry out widely used modern organic synthesis reactions. This book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as industrial organic chemists, particularly those involved in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and other areas of fine chemical research. It provides the novice or nonspecialist with the often difficult-to-find information on reagent properties needed to perform general techniques. With over 80 years combined experience training and developing organic research chemists in industry and academia, the authors offer sufficient guidance for researchers to perform reactions under conditions that give the highest chance of success, including the appropriate precautions to take and proper experimental protocols. The text also covers the following topics:

  • Record keeping and equipment
  • Solvent purification and reagent preparation
  • Using gases and working with vacuum pumps
  • Purification, including crystallization and distillation
  • Small-scale and large-scale reactions
  • Characterization, including NMR spectra, melting point and boiling point, and microanalysis
  • Efficient ways to find information in the chemical literature

With fully updated text and all newly drawn figures, the third edition provides a powerful tool for building the knowledge on the most up-to-date techniques commonly used in organic synthesis.

Table of Contents

General introduction

Safety is your primary responsibility
Safe working practice
Safety risk assessments
Common hazards
Accident and emergency procedures

Keeping records of laboratory work
The laboratory notebook
Keeping records of data
Some tips on report and thesis preparation

Equipping the laboratory and the bench
Setting up the laboratory
General laboratory equipment
The individual bench
Equipment for parallel experiments
Equipment for controlled experimentation

Purification and drying of solvents
Purification of solvents
Drying agents
Drying of solvents

Reagents: Preparation, purification, and handling
Classification of reagents for handling
Techniques for obtaining pure and dry reagents
Techniques for handling and measuring reagents
Preparation and titration of simple organometallic reagents and lithium amide bases
Preparation of diazomethane

Use of gas cylinders
Handling gases
Measurement of gases
Inert gases
Reagent gases

Vacuum pumps
House vacuum systems (low vacuum)
Medium vacuum pumps
High vacuum pumps
Pressure measurement and regulation

Carrying out the reaction
Reactions with air-sensitive reagents
Reaction monitoring
Reactions at other than room temperature
Driving equilibria
Use of controlled reactor systems

Working up the reaction
Quenching the reaction
Isolation of the crude product
Data that need to be collected on the crude product prior to purification

Flash chromatography
Dry-column flash chromatography
Preparative TLC
Medium pressure and prepacked chromatography systems
Preparative HPLC

Small-scale reactions
Reactions at or below room temperature
Reactions above room temperature
Reactions in NMR tubes
Purification of materials

Large-scale reactions
Carrying out the reaction
Workup and product isolation
Purification of the products

Special procedures
Catalytic hydrogenation
Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)
Liquid ammonia reactions
Microwave reactions

NMR spectra
IR spectra
UV spectroscopy
Mass spectrometry
Melting point (m.p.) and boiling point (b.p.)
Optical rotation
Keeping the data

Troubleshooting: What to do when things don’t work

The chemical literature
The structure of the chemical literature
Some important paper-based sources of chemical information
Some important electronic-based sources of chemical information
How to find chemical information
Current awareness

Properties of common solvents
Properties of common gases
Approximate pKa values for some common reagents versus common bases
Common Bronsted acids
Common Lewis acids
Common reducing reagents
Common oxidizing reagents


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John Leonard is currently a principal scientist at AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, where he is primarily involved with synthetic route design and development activities. Prior to this he was a professor of organic chemistry at the University of Salford, UK.

Garry Procter is a professor and director of teaching in the School of Chemistry at the University of Manchester, UK. Before this he was director of undergraduate laboratories in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University.

Barry Lygo is currently a professor of chemistry at the University of Nottingham, UK, working in the field of asymmetric catalysis and synthesis.


Praise for Previous Editions

"…concise and highly readable … I would recommend this book as an essential purchase for all new research students in the area of organic synthesis"
Synthesis, June 1995

"This book should be present in every organic chemistry research laboratory…a bargain at the price."
Chemistry & Industry, July 1995

"Reading this book is like having a thoughtful and smart tutor guiding all your steps in the laboratory…excellent choice.."
Physical Sciences Educational Reviews