Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design  book cover
1st Edition

Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design

ISBN 9781138197312
Published April 21, 2017 by CRC Press
368 Pages 162 Color & 81 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design is a comprehensive, practical guide to the investigation, design, operation and monitoring of mine waste dumps, dragline spoils and major stockpiles associated with large open pit mines. These facilities are some of the largest man-made structures on Earth, and while most have performed very well, there are cases where instabilities have occurred with severe consequences, including loss of life and extensive environmental and economic damage.

Developed and written by industry experts with extensive knowledge and experience, this book is an initiative of the Large Open Pit (LOP) Project. It comprises 16 chapters that follow the life cycle of a mine waste dump, dragline spoil or stockpile from site selection to closure and reclamation. It describes the investigation and design process, introduces a comprehensive stability rating and hazard classification system, provides guidance on acceptability criteria, and sets out the key elements of stability and runout analysis. Chapters on site and material characterisation, surface water and groundwater characterisation and management, risk assessment, operations and monitoring, management of ARD, emerging technologies and closure are included. A chapter is also dedicated to the analysis and design of dragline spoils.

Guidelines for Mine Waste Dump and Stockpile Design summarises the current state of practice and provides insight and guidance to mine operators, geotechnical engineers, mining engineers, hydrogeologists, geologists and other individuals that are responsible at the mine site level for ensuring the stability and performance of these structures.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
Mark Hawley and John Cunning
1.1 General
1.2 Historical context
1.3 The Large Open Pit Project
1.4 Waste rock dump surveys and databases
1.5 Terminology
1.6 Waste dump and stockpile types

2 Basic design considerations
Mark Hawley
2.1 General
2.2 Site selection factors
2.3 Initial site identification
2.4 Conceptual design
2.5 Pre-feasibility design
2.6 Feasibility design
2.7 Detailed design and construction
2.8 Operation
2.9 Closure
2.10 Study requirements

3 Waste dump and stockpile stability rating and hazard classification system
Mark Hawley
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Waste dump and stockpile stability rating and hazard classification system

4 Site characterisation
Michael Etezad, John Cunning, James Hogarth and Geoff Beale
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Site characterisation methods
4.3 Study areas
4.4 Field investigations for geotechnical conditions

5 Material characterisation
Leonardo Dorador, John Cunning, Fernando Junqueira and Mark Hawley
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Foundation materials
5.3 Foundation soils
5.4 Foundation bedrock
5.5 Waste dump and stockpile fill materials

6 Surface water and groundwater characterisation
Geoff Beale
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Investigation of surface water and groundwater
6.3 Conceptual hydrogeological model
6.4 Surface water characterisation
6.5 Infiltration and recharge
6.6 Hydrogeological modelling of the waste dump/stockpile facility
6.7 Modelling of the foundation materials

7 Diversions and rock drains
James Hogarth, Andy Haynes and John Cunning
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Diversion channels
7.3 Rock drains
7.4 Other drainage elements

8 Stability analysis
Mark Hawley, James Hogarth, John Cunning and Andy Haynes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Factors affecting stability
8.3 Acceptance criteria
8.4 Failure modes
8.5 Static limit equilibrium analysis
8.6 Seismic stability analysis
8.7 Numerical methods

9 Runout analysis
Oldrich Hungr
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Materials
9.3 Landslides resulting from failures of waste dumps
9.4 Mechanisms of failure propagation
9.5 Empirical methods of runout analysis and prediction
9.6 Dynamic runout analysis
9.7 Hazard and risk mapping
9.8 Protective measures
9.9 An example runout analysis

10 Risk assessment
Brian Griffin
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Definition of risk
10.3 Types of risk receptors
10.4 Types of risk assessment
10.5 Risk mitigation and management

11 Operation
Andy Haynes and Geoff Beale
11.1 Dump and stockpile management plan
11.2 Foundation preparation
11.3 Climatic conditions
11.4 Concurrent reclamation
11.5 Material quality control
11.6 Dumping operations
11.7Advance rate

12 Instrumentation and monitoring
James Hogarth, Mark Hawley and Geoff Beale
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Visual inspections
12.3 Displacement monitoring systems
12.4 Surface water and groundwater monitoring
12.5 Monitoring guidelines and trigger action response plans

13 Dragline spoils
John Simmons and Robert Yarkosky
13.1 Draglines
13.2 Dragline operating methods
13.3 Dragline tub slip
13.4 Dragline operating bench stability
13.5 Dragline dump profile stability

14 Management of acid rock drainage
Ward Wilson
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Principles of acid rock drainage and metal leaching
14.3 Prevention and control of acid rock drainage through special handling techniques
14.4 Conclusion

15 Emerging technologies
Ward Wilson
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Co-disposal techniques
15.3 Conclusions

16 Closure and reclamation
Björn Weeks and Eduardo Salfate
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Approach to closure and reclamation planning
16.3 Geochemical stability
16.4 Physical stability
16.5 Land forms and erosion control
16.6 Revegetation

Appendix 1 Summary of British Columbia Mine Waste Dump Incidents, 1968-2005
Appendix 2 Summary of the 2013 Mine Waste Dump Survey

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Mark Hawley is the President and CEO of the Piteau Associates Group of Companies. He obtained a Bachelor of Applied Science in Geological Engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1979 and a Master of Science in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1983. He has been involved in engineering geology, rock mechanics, geotechnical and hydrogeological studies for more than 35 years, and has consulted on more than 65 major mining projects worldwide. He specializes in the investigation and design of high open pit slopes and waste rock dumps.

John Cunning is a Principal and Geotechnical Engineer with Golder Associates in Vancouver, BC, Canada. He has a Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering (1991) and a Master’s degree in Geotechnical Engineering (1994) from the University of Alberta. He has been involved in geotechnical engineering studies supporting tailings and mine waste management projects for more than 25 years. He specializes in investigation, design, operation and closure of tailings facilities, water management facilities and waste rocks dumps.