1st Edition

Misogyny as Hate Crime

Edited By Irene Zempi, Jo Smith Copyright 2022
    336 Pages
    by Routledge

    336 Pages
    by Routledge

    Misogyny as Hate Crime explores the background, nature and consequences of misogyny as well as the legal framework and UK policy responses associated with misogyny as a form of hate crime. Taking an intersectional approach, the book looks at how experiences of misogyny may intersect with other forms of hate crime such as disablism, Islamophobia, antisemitism and transphobia.

    From the sexist and derogatory comments about women by former US President Donald Trump, to legislative changes in Chile and Peru making street harassment illegal, misogyny presents a challenge to scholars, practitioners, policy makers, and women globally. The increasing importance of the internet has seen misogyny move into these digital spaces but has also provided a platform for movements such as #MeToo and #TimesUp, highlighting the scale of sexual harassment and abuse. In 2016, Nottinghamshire Police in partnership with Nottingham Women’s Centre became the first force in England and Wales to record misogyny as a hate crime. Since then other police forces have introduced similar schemes to tackle misogyny. More recently, the Law Commission of England and Wales has undertaken a review of the legislation on hate crime and in their consultation paper of proposals for reform have suggested ‘adding sex or gender to the protected characteristics’. In March 2021, the Government announced that police forces in England and Wales will be required to record crimes motivated by hostility based on sex or gender from this autumn. The murder of Sarah Everard has been a ‘watershed moment’ in the Government’s response to violence against women. Sarah Everard’s kidnap and murder who went missing while walking home from a friend’s flat in South London on 3 March 2021, ignited a national conversation about violence against women. Against this background, the book speaks both to the proposed reforms of the hate crime legislation around misogyny, and the broader issues around experiences of and legal responses to misogyny. It showcases the work of leading scholars in this area alongside that of activists and practitioners, whose work has been invaluable in opening up public discussion on misogynistic hate crime and encouraging wider social change. In recognising the intersections of different forms of prejudice, the book provides an innovative contribution to these ‘hate debates’, highlighting the complexities of creating separate strands of hate crime.

    Providing a comprehensive understanding of the debates around inclusion of misogyny as a form of hate crime, this ground-breaking book will be of great interest to students, scholars and activists interested in gender, hate crime, feminism, criminology, law, policing and sociology.


    Irene Zempi and Jo Smith

    Part 1: Theorising misogyny, gender and ‘hate crime’

    1. A feminist theoretical exploration of misogyny and hate crime

    Marian Duggan and Hannah Mason-Bish

    2. Extending the concept, or extending the characteristics? Misogyny or gender?

    Kim McGuire

    Part 2: Online and offline spaces

    3. Gender as a protected characteristic: a legal perspective

    Chara Bakalis

    4. Online misogyny as a hate crime: #TimesUp

    Kim Barker and Olga Jurasz

    5. From sexism to misogyny: can online echo chambers stay quarantined?

    Alexandra Krendel

    Part 3: Identities and lived experiences

    6. Adolescent girls' experiences of street harassment: emotions, comments, impact, actions and the law

    Rachel Harding, Lucy Betts, David Wright, Sheine Peart and Catarina Sjolin

    7. Misogyny, hate crimes and gendered Islamophobia: Muslim women's experiences and responses

    Amina Easat-Daas

    8. The intersection of antisemitism and misogyny

    Lesley Klaff

    9. An exposition of sexual violence as a method of disablist hate crime

    Jane Healy

    10. Trans identities, cisgenderism and hate crime

    Michaela Rogers

    11. "Not the right kind of woman": transgender women’s experiences of transphobic hate crime and trans-misogyny

    Ben Colliver

    Part 4: Practice and activism

    12. A call to feminist praxis: the story of Nottinghamshire’s misogyny hate crime policy

    Zaimal Azad and Sophie Maskell

    13. Policing misogyny as a hate crime – the Nottinghamshire Police experience

    Sue Fish

    14. Informing legal change: the language of misogyny hate crime, gender and enhancing protection through criminal law

    Louise Mullany, Loretta Trickett and Victoria Howard

    15. Our Streets Now: demanding an end to public sexual harassment

    Maya Tutton


    Irene Zempi and Jo Smith


    Irene Zempi is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice, Nottingham Trent University.

    Jo Smith is a Lecturer in Law, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton.