1st Edition

Phase Transformations and Heat Treatments of Steels

    234 Pages 230 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    234 Pages 230 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The perpetual flow of understanding between phase transformation that controls grain/microstructures and heat treatment which decides the size of grains/microstructures of steels is not well articulated in the perspective of undergraduate students. In Phase Transformations and Heat Treatments of Steels, theories of phase transformation have been used to obtain a desirable phase or combination of phases by performing appropriate heat treatment operations, leading to unification of both the concepts. Further, it includes special and critical heat treatment practices, case studies, local and in-service heat treatments, curative and preventive measures of heat treatment defects for several common and high-performance applications.


    • Presents fundamentals of phase transformation in steels
    • Analyzes basics of phase transformation due to heat treatment of steel under various environmental conditions
    • Explains application of heat treatment for different structural components
    • Discusses heat treatment defects and detection
    • Emphasizes heat treatment of special steels and in-situ heat treatment practices

    1. An introduction to Metals

    1.1 Elements, atoms and isotopes

    1.2 Types of bonding between atoms

    1.3 Crystal structures

    2. Diffusion

    2.1 Atomic diffusion mechanisms

    2.2 Types of diffusion

    3. Defects in Crystalline Solids

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Classification

    4. Solid Solutions

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Types of solid solutions

    4.3 Electron to atom ratio

    4.4 Enthalpy of formation of a solid solution

    4.5 Entropy of formation of a solid solution

    4.6 Free energy change upon formation of a solid solution

    4.7 Ordered and random solid solutions

    4.8 Intermediate phases

    5. Phase diagrams and phase transformations

    5.1 Thermodynamic considerations of phase diagrams

    5.2 Gibb’s Phase rule

    5.3 Lever rule

    5.4 Types of phase diagrams and phase transformations

    5.5 Some other solid phase transformations in metals and alloys

    5.6 Roles of defects and diffusion

    6. Iron-Carbon phase diagram

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Allotropic transformations in iron

    6.3 Solubility of carbon in iron

    6.4 Iron-iron carbide phase diagram

    6.5 Effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram

    7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Solid-State Phase Transformation

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Nucleation

    7.3 Growth Kinetics

    7.4 TTT and CCT Diagrams

    8. Phase transformation in steels

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Formation of austenite

    8.3. Pearlitic transformation

    8.4. Bainitic transformation

    8.5. Martensitic transformation

    9. Heat Treatment Furnaces

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Classification of furnaces

    9.3. Batch furnace

    9.4. Continuous furnace

    9.5. Salt bath furnace

    10. Heat treatment atmosphere

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Reactions between atmosphere and material

    10.3. Types of furnace atmospheres

    11. Common heat treatment practices

    11.1. Typical heat treatment processes

    11.2. Hardenability

    11.3. Case-hardening and surface-hardening

    11.4. Thermo-mechanical treatment

    11.5. Heat treatment of carbon and alloy steels

    12. Special Steels

    12.1. Stainless steels

    12.2. Hadfield manganese steels

    12.3. HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) or micro-alloyed steels

    12.4. TRIP (Transformed Induced Plasticity) steels

    12.5. Maraging steels

    12.6. Dual-Phase steels

    12.7. Tool steels

    12.8. Electric grade steels

    13. Some in-situ post weld heat treatment practices

    13.1 Necessity

    13.2 Conventional PWHT process

    13.3 In-situ PWHT of TRIP steel

    13.4 PWHT of duplex stainless steel

    14. Heat Treatment of cast-iron

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Types of cast iron

    14.3. Heat Treatment of gray cast iron

    14.4. Heat treatment of Malleable cast iron

    14.5. Heat treatment of S.G. irons

    15. Heat treatment defects and their determination

    15.1 Distortion

    15.2 Warping

    15.3 Residual stresses

    15.4 Quench cracking

    15.5 Soft spot

    15.6 Oxidation and decarburization

    15.7 Low hardness and strength after hardening

    15.8 Overheating of steel

    15.9 Burning of steel

    15.10 Black fracture

    15.11 Deformation and Volume changes after hardening

    15.12 Excessive hardness after tempering

    15.13 Corrosion and Erosion

    16. Some special heat treatment practices

    16.1 Automobile Industries

    16.2 Aerospace industries

    16.3 Medical equipment

    16.4 Defense Industries


    Bankim Chandra Ray is a Professor of the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India. Prof. Ray’s research centers on the impact of extreme environmental conditions in FRP composites. He is at present pursuing the mechanistic origin of environmental damage phenomena of the engineered FRP materials. He has also worked on non-destructive evaluation of FRP materials during his academic visit to UK University. Professor Ray intends to further his expertise in the field of polymer nano-composites. He and his group have started an investigation on the effect of ultra-low temperatures on synthesis of nano-particles by sono-electro-chemical principle. He has also worked on solidification behaviour and structure-property relationship of especially Al-Si alloys. He is also investigating micro-examinations of interfaces and its implications on nano-composites in metal matrix systems. He has an experience on computer modelling of phase transformation of ferrous materials. Dr. Ray has recently been selected by UNESCO based on Science Citation Index. He is the author of more than 125 scientific papers out of which 78 in International Journals and regular reviewer of many high impact Journals of Composites and Materials Science areas. Prof. Ray’s research has been funded by different governmental agencies. Further, he has 25 years of teaching experience in one of the premier institute of the nation. Mentoring as a Project leader of multi-crores integrated Research and Development proposal for the setting-up of Steel Technology Centre at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.         

    Rajesh Kumar Prusty is presently he is working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India after completion of his Master’s degree (M.E.) in Materials Engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India with CGPA 7.9 out of 8 (gold medallist). He holds his Bachelor’s degree (B.Tech.) in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India with CGPA 9.19 out of 10 (first rank). He currently offers “Composite Materials” course to both UG and PG students and “Nanostructured Materials” course to UG students. 

    Deepak Nayak is a Scientist at the CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar. Born in 1989 in Bhubaneswar, he graduated from National Institute of Technology Rourkela with a B.Tech in Metallurgical & Materials Engineering before working at JSL Stainless Ltd., New Delhi in 2010. After his one year career as a graduate engineer trainee there, he returned to Bhubaneswar, where he received his M.Tech from Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (CSIR-IMMT) in 2013. He was lastly associated with Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur as a research scholar prior to joining CSIR-IMMT as a scientist in 2015. He has been involved in managing projects from concept to completion in the area of mineral beneficiation, iron and steel, extraction of valuable metals and so on.