2nd Edition

Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes Material and Energy Balances, Second Edition

By Nayef Ghasem, Redhouane Henda Copyright 2015
    468 Pages 187 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes: Material and Energy Balances introduces the basic principles and calculation techniques used in the field of chemical engineering, providing a solid understanding of the fundamentals of the application of material and energy balances. Packed with illustrative examples and case studies, this book:

    • Discusses problems in material and energy balances related to chemical reactors
    • Explains the concepts of dimensions, units, psychrometry, steam properties, and conservation of mass and energy
    • Demonstrates how MATLAB® and Simulink® can be used to solve complicated problems of material and energy balances
    • Shows how to solve steady-state and transient mass and energy balance problems involving multiple-unit processes and recycle, bypass, and purge streams
    • Develops quantitative problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to think quantitatively (including numbers and units), the ability to translate words into diagrams and mathematical expressions, the ability to use common sense to interpret vague and ambiguous language in problem statements, and the ability to make judicious use of approximations and reasonable assumptions to simplify problems

    This Second Edition has been updated based upon feedback from professors and students. It features a new chapter related to single- and multiphase systems and contains additional solved examples and homework problems. Educational software, downloadable exercises, and a solutions manual are available with qualifying course adoption.




    Systems of Units

    Conversion factors


    Definitions of Chemical Engineering

    Sets of Units and Unit Conversion

    Conversion of Units

    Temperature Measurement

    Temperature Conversion

    Significant Figures

    Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction of Significant Numbers

    Dimensional Homogeneity

    Dimensionless Quantities

    Process and Process Variables

    Process Flow Sheet

    Process Unit

    Process Streams

    Density, Mass, and Volume

    Mass and Volumetric Flow Rates

    Moles and Molecular Weight

    Compositions of Streams

    Mass Fraction and Mole Fraction


    Pressure Measurement

    Types of Pressures

    Standard Temperature and Pressure

    Pressure-Sensing Devices

    Process Classification and Material Balance

    Material and Energy Balances

    Process Units and Degree of Freedom Analysis

    Process Units: Basic Functions

    Divider (Splitter)

    Mixer (Blender)

    Dryer (Direct Heating)


    Distillation Column

    Multieffect Evaporator



    Leaching and Extraction

    Absorber (Stripper)

    Partial Condenser and Flash Separator

    Flash Separator



    Batch Reactor

    PFRs and PBRs

    CSTR and Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Process Flow Diagram

    Labeling a PFD

    Degree of Freedom Analysis

    Possible Outcomes of DFA

    Independent Equations

    Multiple-Unit PFD

    DFA, Multiunit Process

    Material Balance on Single-Unit Process

    Introduction to Material Balance

    Material Balance Fundamentals

    Mass Balance on Steady-State Processes

    Stream Specification

    Basis for Calculation

    Procedure for Solving Material Balance Problems

    Multiple-Unit Process Calculations

    Multiple-Unit Process

    Degree of Freedom Analysis

    Recycle, Bypass, Purge, and Makeup





    Material Balances on Reactive Systems

    Stoichiometry Basics

    Stoichiometric Equation

    Stoichiometric Coefficients

    Stoichiometric Ratio

    Limiting Reactant

    Excess Reactants

    Fractional Conversion

    General Material Balance

    Differential Balance

    Integral Balance

    Formulation Approaches of Mass Balance

    Extent of Reaction Method for a Single Reaction

    Element or Atomic Balance Method

    Molecular or Component Balance Approach

    Extent of Reaction and Multiple Reactions

    Molecular Species Approach for Multiple Reactions

    Degree of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Processes

    Chemical Equilibrium

    Combustion Reactions

    Theoretical and Excess Air

    Multiple-Unit Systems Involving Reaction, Recycle, and Purge

    Multiple-Unit Process Flowcharts

    Flow Sheet for Reaction with Recycle

    Reaction with Product Splitter and Recycle

    Reaction with Recycle and Purge

    Degree of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Multiple-Unit Processes

    Reaction and Multiple-Unit Steady-State Processes

    Single- and Multiphase Systems

    Single-Phase Systems

    Liquid and Solid Densities

    Ideal Gas Equation of State

    Gas Density

    Real Gas Relationships

    Compressibility Factor (z)

    Virial Equation of State

    Van der Waals Equation of State

    Soave–Redlich–Kwong Equation of State

    Kay’s Mixing Rules

    Multiphase Systems

    Phase Diagram

    Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Curve

    Vapor Pressure Estimation

    Clapeyron Equation

    Clausius–Clapeyron Equation

    Cox Chart

    Antoine Equation

    Partial Pressure

    Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

    Raoult’s Law for a Single Condensable Species

    Gibbs’ Phase Rule

    Bubble Point, Dew Point, and Critical Point

    Energy and Energy Balances

    Energy Balance for Closed and Open Systems

    Forms of Energy: The First Law of Thermodynamics

    Energy Balance for a Closed System

    Energy Balance for an Open System

    Steam Turbine

    Heaters and Coolers


    Mechanical Energy Balance

    Bernoulli’s Equation

    Enthalpy Calculations

    Enthalpy Change as a Result of Temperature

    Constant Heat Capacity

    Enthalpy Calculations with Phase Changes

    Energy Balance for Open Systems with Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs

    Enthalpy Change because of Mixing

    Energy Balance for Bioprocesses

    Psychrometric Chart


    Energy Balance with Reaction

    Heat of Reaction

    Heats of Formation and Heat of Combustion

    Extent of Reaction

    Reactions in Closed Processes

    Energy Balance for Reactive Processes

    Heat of Reaction Method

    Heat of Formation or Element Balance Method

    Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances

    Unknown Process Exit Temperature

    Combustion Processes

    Energy Balance in Bioprocesses

    Energy Balance in Membrane Reactors


    Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances

    Material Balances




    Extent of Reaction (ξ)

    Energy Balances

    Heat of Reaction Method

    Heat of Formation Method

    Concept of Atomic Balances

    Mathematical Formulation of the Atomic Balance

    Degree of Freedom Analysis for the Atomic Balance

    Implementing Recycle on the Separation Process

    Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances

    Unsteady-State Material Balance

    Unsteady-State Energy Balance



    *Every chapter includes learning objectives, homework problems, and references.


    Nayef Ghasem is an associate professor of chemical engineering at the United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain. Previously, he taught at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A member of IChemE and ACS, he has published more than 40 journal papers, primarily in modeling and simulation, bifurcation theory, gas–liquid separation using membrane contactors, and fabrication of polymeric hollow fiber membranes. He has also authored Computer Methods in Chemical Engineering, published by CRC Press. He holds a B.Sc and M.Sc from the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, and a Ph.D from the University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK.

    Redhouane Henda is a professor of chemical engineering at the Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. His research focuses on nanoscience and technology of thin films and process engineering of complex systems. He has received fellowships from the French Ministry of Higher Education and the German Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, as well as a scholarship from the Research Council of Norway. He earned his M.Sc and Ph.D from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France, and spent a postdoctoral fellowship at the Universität Heidelberg, Germany. Widely published, he has served on the editorial boards of numerous journals and developed computer modules for research and education.

    "Throughout this book the underlying theory of material and energy balances is clearly and succinctly presented by the authors before extensive worked examples are used to demonstrate its application to a range of process problems including multiple units systems with and without reactions occurring. This would allow the book to be used as a main text for an entry level undergraduate course in fundamental chemical process principles or used by practising engineers for both reference and self-study. The authors have clearly given a lot of thought on how to present the material in a user-friendly way to maximize learning and facilitate understanding of core chemical engineering principles."
    —Dr. Diane Rossiter, Retired Senior University Teacher, The University of Sheffield, UK

    "The materials are well organized in a step-by-step style and engage readers greatly. In addition to helping chemical engineering students to directly select and master the topics of their interest, the book may even help non-chemical engineering students to grasp the most important basics of chemical engineering. A quick understanding of basic chemical engineering concepts is delivered briefly and clearly without losing accuracy and depth. The examples provided in the book are great for the readers to comprehend the concepts, calculations, and chemical unit operations."
    —Zhaolin (Forest) Wang, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

    "The contents are excellent. Starting with detailed analysis of a single unit without chemical reaction and then gradually moving into multiple units with chemical reactions is a very good approach to train chemical engineering students."
    —Professor Iqbal M Mujtaba, University of Bradford, UK