2nd Edition

Principles of Supply Chain Management

    718 Pages 66 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The second edition of this popular textbook presents a balanced overview of the principles of supply chain management. Going beyond the usual supply chain text, Principles of Supply Chain Management not only details the individual components of the supply chain, but also illustrates how the pieces must come together. To show the logic behind why supply chain management is essential, the text examines how supply chains are evolving, looks ahead to new developments, and provides a balanced look at supply chains with a focus on both the customer side and the supplier side of supply chains.

    See What’s New in the Second Edition:

    • Expanded coverage of current topics such as e-commerce, risk management, outsourcing and reshoring, sustainability, project management, and data analytics
    • Increased emphasis on how customers are becoming more influential in steering product design
    • Additional coverage of the use of data analytics to evaluate customer preferences and buying patterns
    • A new chapter devoted to logistics and its increasing importance in supply chains
    • Company profiles of organizations with effective supply chains that illustrate the main theme of each chapter
    • A "Hot Topic" for each chapter, providing a description of a critical management issue to stimulate class discussion
    • A complete set of instructor materials for each chapter, including presentation slides, test banks, class exercises, discussion questions, and more

    From the point of distribution to the final customer, all the way back to the point of origin at the mine or farm, the text provides examples and case histories that illustrate a proven approach for achieving effective supply chain integration. This self-contained resource provides readers with a realistic appraisal of the state of the art in supply chain management and the understanding needed to build and manage effective supply chains in a wide range of industries. Most importantly, it emphasizes the need for building and maintaining collaboration among all members of the supply chain.

    Preface to the Second Edition
    Preface to the First Edition
    Chapter Outline


    Evolution of Supply Chains
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Procter & Gamble (P&G)
    What Is a Supply Chain?
    Importance of SCM
    Evolution of Supply Chains
    Early Supply Chains
    Local Supply Chains
    Global Supply Chains
    Changing Government Orientation
    State-Controlled Governments
    Market-Driven Governments
    Current Trends that Link Supply Chain Participants More Closely
    Relationship Building
    Electronic Business
    Developing Economies
    Need for Quality Improvement
    Changing Customer Demands
    Current Developments in SCM
    Power Has Shifted from Manufacturers to Retailers
    Consolidation of Small, Local, or Regional Retailers into National Chains
    Emergence of "Killer Category" Retailers
    From a Make-and-Sell Mentality to a Sense-and-Respond Orientation
    Obstacles to Supply Chain Integration
    Need for Globalization
    Complexity of Arranging Entities with Common Interests
    Lack of Effective Interorganizational Systems
    Need for Multiple Supply Chains within Companies
    Lack of Trust between Participants
    Examples of Companies with Successful Supply Chains
    Hot Topic: Outsourcing to Low Wage Countries
    Discussion Questions

    Supply Chains as a System
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Zara’s
    Supply Chain Systems
    Manufacturing versus Services
    Characteristics of Supply Chains
    Physical Flow
    Information Flow
    Funds Flow
    Relational Flow
    Examples of Supply Chains in Different Industries
    Internal and External Customers
    Open Systems versus Closed Systems
    Effect of External Influences on Supply Chains
    Obstacles and Enablers of Supply Chain Integration
    Performance Measurement
    Allocation of Costs, Resources, and Benefits along the Supply Chain
    Value Creation as the Ultimate Objective
    Hot Topic: How a Natural Disaster Can Cripple a Supply Chain
    Discussion Questions


    Determining Customer Needs
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: McDonald’s
    Group Customers into Homogeneous Segments
    Determine Needs of the Ultimate Consumer
    Product Needs
    Service Needs
    Marketing Mix
    Manufacturing and Service Supply Chains
    Accurately Determine Customer Needs
    Market Research
    Open System Scanning
    Develop Reliable Demand Forecasts
    Quantitative Forecasting Methods
    Qualitative Forecasting Methods
    Collaborative Forecasting
    Determine the Attributes of a Well-Designed Product
    Functionality (Product Works to Satisfy Customers’ Needs)
    Validity (Product Has Value and Functions at a Reasonable Cost)
    Manufacturability (Product Can Be Efficiently Produced)
    Reliability (Product Has a Variety of Quality Attributes)
    Serviceability (Product Can Be Serviced during Its Effective Life)
    Recyclability (Product Can Be Recycled along the Reverse Logistics Supply Chain)
    Consider Alternative Product Design Approaches
    Quality Function Deployment
    Concurrent Engineering
    Design for Manufacturability
    Design for Sustainability
    Determine the Number of Supply Chains Needed by a Company
    Align with Customer Segment
    Align with Product/Service Bundle
    Align with Supplier Category
    Align with Common Incentives
    Respond to Needs of Internal Customers
    Hot Topic: Human Trafficking
    Discussion Questions

    A System to Meet Customer Needs
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: GE Aviation
    Supply Chain Models
    Global Supply Chain Forum Model
    Customer Relationship Management
    Origins of CRM
    What Can CRM Do?
    CRM Processes
    CRM’s Future
    Product Life Cycle Management
    What Is PLM?
    How Did PLM Evolve?
    What Does PLM Include?
    What Does PLM Not Include?
    What Are the Benefits of PLM?
    What Are the Obstacles?
    What Is the Present Status of PLM?
    What Does the Future Hold?
    Supply Chain Configuration
    Basic (Generic) Supply Chain
    Variations for Different Industries
    Supply Chain Mapping
    Determining Resource Requirements
    Information Systems
    Designing Processes to Match with Products
    Make to Stock
    Assemble to Order
    Make to Order
    Engineer to Order
    Determining the Mix of Make and Buy
    Core Competency Concept
    Total Cost of Ownership
    Cost Reduction versus Revenue Increase Considerations
    Effect of Outsourcing Movement
    Aligning Entities along the Supply Chain
    Entities to Be Involved
    Allocation of Authority and Responsibility among Entities
    Collaboration Process
    Implementation Plan
    Evaluating the System Design
    Will It Accomplish Its Objectives?
    Is It Sustainable?
    Is It Flexible?
    Hot Topic: Sweatshops
    Discussion Questions

    Demand Management
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: NextEra
    Definition of Demand Management
    Importance of Demand Management
    Managing Demand
    Accept All Demand
    Select the Types of Demand to Accept
    Solicit External Input in Forming Demand Patterns
    Design the Form in Which Demand Will Be Accepted
    Impose Constraints on Demand Submission
    Managing Supply
    Select a Demand Management Strategy
    Develop a Demand-Forecasting System
    Determine the Resource Requirements to Meet the Demand
    Merging Supply and Demand into a Demand Management Process
    Sales and Operations Planning to Match Short-Term Supply and Demand
    Collaboration among Supply Chain Participants
    Demand Management in Manufacturing
    Demand Management in Services
    Proposed Demand Management Strategies
    Factors That Affect Selection of a Demand Management Strategy
    Resources’ Value
    Type of Demand
    Top Management Strategies
    Relationship between Factors and Strategies
    Model for Integrating Demand and Supply Management
    Programs Used to Implement Demand Management Strategies
    Provide Strategy Programs
    Match Strategy Programs
    Influence Strategy Programs
    Control Strategy Programs
    Demand Management along the Supply Chain
    Mining and Agriculture
    Hot Topic: The Problem of Cheap
    Discussion Questions


    Distribution and Retailing
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Lowe’s
    Retail Function
    History of Retailing
    Characteristics of the Industry
    Customers and Markets
    Transformation Process
    Impact on Operations Management
    Designing the Retail Process
    Strategic Orientation
    Critical Design Points: Keys to Success
    Additional Factors to Consider in Retail Store Design
    Managing a Retail Business
    Determine the Expected Demand
    Plan Capacity to Meet Demand
    Implement the Operating Plan
    Measure Performance
    Replan for the Next Period
    Retail and Inventory Management
    Response Time
    Present Situation in Retailing
    Future in Retailing
    Role of Wholesalers and Distribution Centers
    Loading the Trucks
    Transporting to Stores
    Unloading and Display at Stores
    Critical Success Factors for Distribution
    Inventory within Distribution Functions
    Inventory Management between Retailer and Distributor
    Technology in Distribution Functions
    At the Retail Store
    Movement of Goods
    At the Distribution Center
    Distribution Center Design
    Positioning Services within the Distribution Functions
    Presale Services
    Postsale Services
    Role of Third-Party Service Providers
    Distribution Performance Measurement
    Financial Performance Measures
    Operating Performance Measures
    Collaboration Performance Measures
    Retailer–Distributor Relationship
    Hot Topic: Contaminated Milk
    Discussion Questions

    Production and Service Processes
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Caterpillar
    Evolution of the Production Function
    From Craft to Mass Production
    From Mass Production to Mass Customization
    Critical Success Factors for Manufacturers
    Cost and Efficiency
    Responsiveness: Timing of Delivery
    Responsiveness: Product/Service Mix
    Information Technology
    Manufacturing Strategies
    Make to Stock
    Locate to Order
    Assemble to Order
    Make to Order
    Engineer to Order
    Batch to Lean Operations
    Present Batch Flow
    Proposed Lean Production Flow
    Customer Lead Time
    Extra Available Space
    Faster Detection of Quality Problems
    Ease of Transferring Operators
    Reduced Scheduling Requirements
    Smaller Lot Sizes
    No Buildup of WIP Inventory
    Empowered Employees
    Reduced Equipment Breakdowns
    Reduced Late Material Deliveries
    Obstacles to Implementing Lean
    Make or Buy Strategies
    Vertical Integration
    Capacity Planning
    How Much Capacity? When? What Kind?
    Location and Ownership
    Service Production Strategies
    Relationships with Downstream Customers
    From Transactions to Processes
    Transactions versus Processes
    Basic Processes of a Business
    Benefits of a Process Orientation
    Effect of Process Orientation
    Organizational Structure
    Knowledge Management
    Change Management
    Trends in Production
    From Manual to Automated
    From Domestic to Global
    From Standard Products to Customized
    Sales and Operations Planning
    Additive Manufacturing
    Performance Measurement
    As Measured by Accounting
    As Measured by Production
    Measures along the Supply Chain
    Hot Topic: Clothing Manufacturing
    Discussion Questions

    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Nestlé
    Role of Procurement in the Supply Chain
    Traditional Purchasing
    Contemporary Purchasing
    Changing Role of Purchasing
    Critical Success Factors for Purchasing
    Match Inflow with Outflow
    Reduce Variances in Delivery
    Increase Supplier Dependability
    Reduce the Bullwhip Effect
    Become an Intercompany Facilitator
    Find Sustainable Suppliers
    Purchasing Functions: Participating
    Product Design
    Product Specifications
    New Product Introduction
    Target Costing
    Strategic Sourcing
    Supplier Location
    Inventory Management
    Supplier Risk Management
    Purchasing Functions: Directing
    Purchasing Process
    Supplier Evaluation
    Supplier Relationship Management
    Supply Chain Coordination/Collaboration
    Purchasing along the Supply Chain
    Mining and Agriculture
    Offshore Outsourcing
    As a Strategic Concept
    TCO Considerations
    As a Project, with Project Management Needs
    Other Considerations: Intangible Costs and Public Acceptance
    Supplier Location as a Strategy for Entering an Offshore Market
    Performance Measurement
    Traditional: Positive Purchase Price Variance
    Contemporary: Enhanced Value for the Consumer
    Future of Purchasing
    Hot Topic: Why Apple Juice Should Be Made from … Apples
    Discussion Questions

    Logistics: The Glue That Holds the Supply Chain Together
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Transportation Insight
    Scope of Logistics
    Evolution of Integrated Logistics
    Truck: Privately Owned or Third-Party Carriers
    Rail: For Selected Goods
    Transmission Lines
    Fiber-Optic Cable Networks
    Materials Management
    Interim Storage
    Exchange Points
    Drivers of the Outsourcing Movement
    Steps in the Outsourcing Decision
    Reshoring Initiative
    Rise of 3PLs
    Benefits of 3PL Services
    Obstacles to Successful Implementation
    Trend toward Outsourcing the Distribution Function
    Major Companies
    Role of 4PL in Building Supply Chain Relationships
    High-Tech Industry Issues
    Risk Management
    Status Report
    Hot Topic: Container Shipping and its Risk Points
    Discussion Questions

    Reverse Supply Chains
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: GENCO
    Description of Reverse Supply Chain Networks
    Benefits of Reverse Logistics
    Barriers to Reverse Logistics
    Continuation of Forward Supply Chains
    History of Reverse Logistics
    Principal Drivers of the Movement
    Individual Consumers
    Individual Businesses
    Society as a Group
    Business Sector
    Educational Institutions
    Governments: At All Levels
    Activities in Reverse Logistics
    Service: Assure Proper Use of Product
    Returns: Repackaging or Relocation
    Restoration: Minor Modification or Repair
    Remanufacturing: Overhaul and Major Rebuilding
    Recycling: Reconstitution as Part of Another Product
    Disposal: Return to Natural State
    Hazardous Waste Disposal
    Role of Private Industry
    New Paradigms in Product Design (Design for Sustainability)
    Design and Operate Green Supply Chains
    Develop Systems to Manage Reverse Logistics
    Participate in Joint Ventures to Seek Social Objectives
    Role of Government
    Research: To Identify Threats and Opportunities
    Legislation: To Standardize Business Requirements
    Regulation: To Monitor Performance
    Participation: To Encourage and Support Ongoing Programs
    Role of Consumer
    Participant in Reverse Supply Chain Programs
    Educated Consumer
    Supporter of Green Supply Chain Efforts
    Reverse Logistics Network
    Continuation of the Forward Supply Chain
    Open System Environment
    Heavily Outsourced by Major Businesses
    Need for a Life Cycle Systems Approach
    Need for IT
    Other Considerations in Designing Reverse Supply Chains
    Growth in Amount of Materials Recycled
    Increase in Number of Companies Performing Reverse Logistics Activities
    Joint Ventures between Private Business and Government
    Increased Emphasis on Prevention, Not Just Reusing
    More Companies Will Design Integrated Reverse Logistics Systems
    Hot Topic: Reshoring: Revisiting the Make or Buy Decision
    Discussion Questions


    The Need to Integrate
    Expected Outcomes
    Company Profile: Cisco
    Setting the Stage
    Reasons to Integrate
    Research in Support of Integration Efforts
    From Mass Production to Mass Customization
    From Craft to Mass Production
    Prelude to Mass Customization
    From Vertical Integration to Virtual Integration
    From Homogeneous Cultures to Diverse Cultures
    From Bottom Line to Triple Bottom Line
    Drivers of Change
    Global Competition
    Global Markets
    Economic Advantage
    Relationships and Trust among Supply Chain Participants
    Trust between Individuals
    Formal Contracts or Agreements
    Common Interests or Projects (Enforced Trust)
    Involves Change Management
    Change Is Difficult within a Company
    Change Is More Difficult for a Community
    Change Is Most Difficult for an Entire Country
    Steps in the Integration Process
    Build Interfaces with Customers and Suppliers
    Change Interfaces to Interlaces to Make the Relationships Closer
    Change Interlaces to Integrated Relationships
    Need for Strategic Planning
    Categories of Operations
    Normal Operations
    Improvement Programs
    Problem-Solving Programs
    Crisis Management
    Need for a Multiyear Project Plan
    Performance Measurement across the Supply Chain
    Integration Requires Sharing
    Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer-Fighting Machine, Part 1
    Discussion Questions

    Why Integration Is Difficult
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Boeing
    Determining Strategic Objectives
    Evaluating the Potential Return on Investment
    Uncertainty of Benefits
    Uncertainty of Costs
    Uncertainty of Assets Employed
    Designing for Participant Differences
    Participants Are Not Equal
    Technical Differences
    Need for Multiple Supply Chains
    Different Customer Segments
    Different Supplier Segments
    Different Logistics Networks
    Separating Interwoven Networks
    Selecting and Implementing Technology
    Product and Service Processes
    Incomplete Interorganizational Systems
    Financial Funds Flow
    Realigning Infrastructure
    Internal Organization
    Effect of Outsourcing Movement
    External Organization
    Policies and Procedures
    Physical Infrastructure
    Transforming Company Cultures
    Building Relationships
    Lack of Trust Inhibits Collaboration
    Measuring Performance
    Maintaining the System
    During the Implementation Process
    During the Operation of the Supply Chain
    Extension into Reverse Logistics
    Obstacles to International SCM
    Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer Fighting Machine (Part 2)
    Discussion Questions

    How to Build an Integrated Supply Chain
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Interface, Inc.
    Who Manages the Supply Chain?
    Past and Future of Supply Chain Management
    Present Supply Chains
    Virtual Supply Chains
    Contractual Alliances
    Dominant Party Management
    Third-Party Direct Management
    Third-Party Indirect (Third-Party) Management
    World of Lean Production
    Purchasing Process
    Production Process
    Delivery Process
    Demand Variation
    Moving from Functional Focus to Cross-Enterprise Collaboration
    Comprehensive Supply Chain Model
    Decisions Needed to Achieve a Lean and Agile Supply Chain
    Integrated Supply Chain
    Steps in the Change Process
    A Look Ahead
    Hot Topic: Atomic Energy Canada Limited Encounters Problems with Its Cancer Fighting Machine (Part 3)
    Discussion Questions


    Information Flow along the Supply Chain
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: SAP
    Need for Information Flow
    Types of Information Transmitted
    Upstream Suppliers
    Midstream (Internal)
    Downstream Customers
    Reverse Supply Chain
    Supply Chain Connectivity
    Intracompany Technologies Used
    Data Capture and Communication
    Data Storage and Retrieval
    Data Manipulation and Reporting
    Supply Chain Direct Links
    Customer Relationship Management
    Supplier Relationship Management
    Linking Technologies
    Interorganizational Systems
    EDI and Internet EDI
    Linking Applications
    Sales and Operations Planning
    Product Life Cycle Management
    Third-Party Services
    Service-Oriented Architecture
    Software as a Service
    Cloud Computing
    Benefits of Information Technologies
    Tangible Benefits
    Intangible Benefits
    Barriers to IT Adoption
    Technological Obstacles
    Managerial Obstacles
    Societal Obstacles
    Model of an Integrated Supply Chain Information System
    Hot Topic: The Boeing 787: A New Supply Chain Model in the Commercial Aircraft Industry—Part 1
    Discussion Questions

    Funds Flow along the Supply Chain
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Wells Fargo
    Overview of the Flow of Funds
    Need for Cash Flow within a Company
    Supply Chain Funds Flow
    Flows in a Supply Chain
    Benefits of Improved Funds Flow
    External Sources of Funds
    Banks and Other Lending Institutions
    Supply Chain Finance
    Performance Measurement
    Financial Accounting Measures: Current Ratio
    Management Accounting Measures
    Need for Finance and Operations to Collaborate
    Effect of Production Strategies on Funds Flow
    Effect of Outsourcing on Product Costs and Capital Requirements
    Interorganizational Systems
    Funds Flow in the Reverse Supply Chain
    Comprehensive Example
    Components of a Financial Statement
    Analyzing the Cash Flow Statement
    Looking at Alternatives
    Hot Topic: The Boeing 787, Problems in the Supply Chain (Part 2)
    Discussion Questions

    ROI for Supply Chains and Other Issues
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Apple
    Supply Chain Configurations
    Programs Requiring Close Supply Chain Relationships
    Need to Evaluate Supply Chain ROI
    Tangible Benefits
    Tangible Costs
    Indirect Costs
    Intangible Benefits
    Intangible Costs
    Obstacles to Equitable Distribution among Members
    How to Organize?
    How to Distribute?
    Supply Chain Governance Models
    Prime Mover in the Supply Chain
    Select the Team
    Monitor Ongoing Operations
    Evaluate Performance
    Initiate Change
    Third-Party Provider
    Changes in Supply Chain Composition
    Dictated by Prime Mover
    Consensus of the Supply Chain Participants
    Consultation with an Outside Adviser
    Mediation by Third Party
    Legal Action
    Case Studies
    Use of Accounting Records
    RFID Implementation
    Cost Reductions with Investment Requirements
    Supply Chain Finance
    Benefits of Supply Chain Collaboration
    Hot Topic: The Boeing 787, Pushing the Limits of Outsourcing (Part 3)
    Discussion Questions


    Trends in Supply Chain Management
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Amazon
    From the Past to the Present
    From the American Revolution to World War II
    From World War II until the Present
    Evolution of Critical Success Factors in the United States
    Beginning (from First Settlements through 1800)
    Industrial Revolution (1840s–1890s)
    Growth and Recovery (1890s–1930s)
    Mass Production (1940s–1950s)
    Arisings (1960s–1970s)
    Awakening (1980s)
    Globalization I (1990s)
    Globalization II and Mass Customization (2000 and after)
    Major Drivers of Change in Supply Chains
    Global Business Perspective
    Balanced Approach to Offshore Outsourcing
    Total Cost of Ownership
    Risk Management
    Other Issues
    Continuing Advances in Technology
    Retail Operations
    Demand Forecasting
    Transportation and Distribution
    Information Systems
    From Special-Purpose to General-Purpose Resources
    Evolution from Transactions to Processes
    Transactions versus Processes
    Benefits of a Process Orientation
    Vanishing Boundaries between Manufacturing and Services
    Infrastructure Refinements
    From Vertical to Horizontal Organizations
    From Rigid Rules to Flexible Policies and Procedures
    From Tacit Knowledge to Implicit Knowledge
    From Financial Accounting to Management Accounting
    Culture and Employees
    From Passive or Obstructing Culture to Engaged and Receptive Culture
    Employees: From Specialized to Empowered
    Supply Chain Relationships
    From Adversarial to Collaborative
    Trust and Distrust
    Emergence of Third-Party Supply Chain Coordinators
    Risk Management
    Increased Complexity and Risk
    Internal Risks
    External (Open System Environment) Influences
    Natural Disasters
    Triple Bottom Line
    Beyond the Triple Bottom Line
    Why Should Business Take the Lead?
    Need for Alliances
    Benefits and Obstacles
    Sustainability in the Future
    Strategic Employee Plan
    Hot Topic: Finding Solutions to the Sweatshop Problem
    Discussion Questions

    Preparation for the Future
    Learning Outcomes
    Company Profile: Google
    Recognize the Need to Adapt
    Develop New Measures of Success
    Financial Success
    Social Responsibility
    Integrating Financial Results, Society Equity, and Sustainability
    Identify What Needs to Be Done
    APICS E&R Foundation Inc
    McKinsey Study
    University of Tennessee
    Adapt to Government Actions
    Business Ethics
    Product Safety
    Social Equity
    Capitalize on Third-Party Skills
    Direct Support: Outsourcing
    Indirect Support: Financing and Insurance
    Advisory: Consulting and Training
    Analyst: Measure Performance and Identify Needs
    Manager: Virtual Holding Company
    Utilize Information Technology
    Enterprise Resource Planning Extension
    Service-Oriented Architecture
    Internet Processes
    Interorganizational Systems
    Take Advantage of Other Technologies
    Organization and Teams
    Project Management
    Process Technology
    Build Strategic and Operational Plans
    Continue the Drive for Collaboration
    Develop Performance Measures for Supply Chain Management
    Integrate Delivery Effectiveness Measures
    Integrate Cost and Quality Measures
    Supplier Profitability
    Effectiveness of Supply Chain Integration
    Structure the Organization to Manage Change
    Integrate All Functions
    Educate the Work Force
    Increase Marketing Influence
    Overcome Inertia
    Expand Knowledge Management
    From Data to Information
    From Information to Knowledge
    From Knowledge to Wisdom
    Some Ways to Learn
    Obstacles to Knowledge Transfer
    Will Knowledge Replace "Things"?
    Acquire Data Analytics Capabilities
    Integrate Manufacturing and Services
    Apply Chaos Theory to Business
    Hot Topic: How Social Media Knocked Down the Lean Finely Textured Beef Industry
    Discussion Questions



    Richard E. "Dick" Crandall is a professor in the College of Business at Appalachian State University (ASU), Boone, North Carolina. He is certified in production and inventory management (CFPIM) and as a supply chain professional (CSCP) by APICS-The Association for Operations Management. He earned his PhD in production/operations management from the University of South Carolina, Columbia, and is a registered professional engineer and a certified public accountant. Prior to joining ASU, Dick worked as an industrial engineer and in management positions for manufacturing and service companies. He was a consultant with a major consulting firm, installing systems for both operations and financial applications. With Rick Crandall, he coauthored the book Vanishing Boundaries, How Integrating Manufacturing and Services Creates Customer Value, by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

    William "Rick" Crandall currently serves as a professor of management in the School of Business at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. He received his PhD in business administration with a focus on organizational behavior and human resource management from the University of Memphis, Tennessee. His primary research interest is in the area of crisis management, helping organizations cope with catastrophic events. He is the author of the book, Crisis Management in the New Strategy Landscape (coauthored with John Parnell and John Spillan, also of the University of North Carolina at Pembroke), released by Sage Publications. He is also active in researching issues related to supply chain management. Prior to entering higher education, Dr. Crandall worked in management for ARA Services (now ARAMARK), a service management firm based in Philadelphia.

    Dr. Charlie C. Chen was educated at Claremont Graduate University, California, and earned his PhD in management information systems. He is a professor in the Department of Computer Information Systems at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. His research interests include project management and supply chain management. He is a member of the Association for Information Systems and Decision Sciences Institute and is certified by the Project Management Institute as a project management professional (PMP). Dr. Chen has published in journals such as Communications of Association for Information Systems, Behaviour and Information Technology, Journal of Knowledge Management Research & Practice, and the Journal of Information Systems Education. Dr. Chen is a dedicated transnational scholar and a trip leader for study-abroad programs in Asia (Japan and Taiwan).