1st Edition

50 Landmark Papers every Colorectal Surgeon Should Know

Edited By John R.T. Monson, Lawrence Lee, Fergal J. Fleming Copyright 2024
    280 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    280 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    There has been an exponential increase in the volume and quality of published research relating to colorectal disease over the last decades. This book identifies the 50 key scientific articles in the field of colorectal disease and colorectal surgery and through expert reflections and editorial perspectives explains why these papers are important. Influential contributors who have shaped the practice of modern Colorectal Surgery comment on the Landmark Papers that have shaped and defined the specialty.

    Among thousands of articles, a small fraction are truly “game changing.” Such studies form the foundations of colorectal surgery today and the selection of papers within this book provide the 50 landmark papers every 21st-century colorectal surgeon needs to know. A commentary to each carefully selected paper explains why these papers are so important, thus providing every surgeon with the foundation stones of knowledge in this fast-moving area.

    A valuable reference not only to the established surgeon, but also to colorectal surgery residents and trainees, as well as to more experienced surgeons as they continue to learn new techniques and approaches and to improve their knowledge of colorectal disease and treatments. The papers provide an evidence-based resource for those surgeons preparing for professional exams and may inspire clinicians to produce new research.

    Section One: Functional Disorders of the Pelvic Floor,  Bowel function after laparoscopic posterior sutured rectopexy versus ventral mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse: a double-blind, randomised single-centre study.,  Lundby L, Iversen LH, Buntzen S, Wara P, Høyer K, Laurberg S.,  Commentary by: Thomas M Ward and Liliana G Bordeianou,  Efficacy of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence Results of a Multicenter Double-Blind Crossover Study,  Anne-Marie Leroi, Yann Parc, Paul-Antoine Lehur, et al.,  Commentary by: Natasha Caminsky and Marylise Boutros,  PROSPER: a randomised comparison of surgical treatments for rectal prolapse,  Senapati A, Gray RG, Middleton LJ, Harding J, Hills RK, Armitage NC, Buckley L,,  Commentary by: Emily Steinhagen,  New operation for rectal prolapse.,  Charles Wells,  Commentary by: Steven D. Wexner,  Section Two: Rectal Cancer,  Role of circumferential resection margin involvement in the local recurrence of rectal cancer,  IJ Adam, MO Mohamdee, IG Martin, N Scott, PJ Finan, D Johnston, MF Dixon, P Quirke,  Commentary by: James Fleshman,  Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer,  Sauer R, Becker H, Hohenberger W, et al.,  Commentary by: Josh Smith and Janet Alvarez,  Operative versus nonoperative treatment for stage0 distal rectal cancer following chemoradiation therapy: long-term results,  Habr-Gama A, Perez RO, Nadalin W, et al,  Commentary by: Bradley A Krasnick, Matthew F Kalady,  Preoperative Radiotherapy Combined with Total Mesorectal Excision for Resectable Rectal Cancer,  Ellen Kapiteijn, Corrie A.M. Marijnen, Iris D. Nagtegaal, Hein Putter, Willem H. Steup, Theo Wiggers, Harm J.T. Rutten Lars Pahlman, Bengt Glimelius, J. Han J.M. van Krieken, Jan W.H. Leer, and Cornelis J.H. van de Velde,  Commentary by: Pat Sylla and Motahar Bassam,  Effect of the plane of surgery achieved on local recurrence in patients with operable rectal cancer: a prospective study using data from the MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 randomised clinical trial,  Phil Quirke, Robert Steele, John Monson, Robert Grieve, Subhash Khanna, Jean Couture, Chris O’Callaghan, Arthur Sun Myint, Eric Bessell, Lindsay C Thompson, Mahesh Parmar, Richard J Stephens, David Sebag-Montefiore,  Commentary by: Michael L.R. Lonne, Amy M.Y. Cao, Andrew R.L. Stevenson,  Defunctioning stoma reduces symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum for cancer: a randomized multicenter trial.,  Matthiessen P, Hallbook O, Rutegard J, Simert G, Sjodahl R.,  Commentary by: Albert M Wolthuis,  Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Circumferential Resection Margin Predicts Disease-Free Survival and Local Recurrence: 5-Year Follow-Up results of the MERCURY Study,  Taylor FGM, Quirke P, Heald RJ, et al,  Commentary by: Ian Daniels,  Effect of Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection vs Open Resection of Stage II or III Rectal Cancer on Pathologic Outcomes: The ACOSOG Z6051 Randomized Clinical Trial.,  Fleshman J, Branda M, Sargent DJ, et al,  Commentary by: Nancy N Baxter and Tyler R Chesney,  The evolution of pelvic exenteration practice at a single center: Lessons learned from over 500 cases,  Cherry E Koh, Michael J Solomon, Kilian G Brown, Kirk Austin, Christopher M Byrne, Peter Lee, Jane M Young,  Commentary by: Ben Creavin, Des Winter,  Neoadjuvant (Chemo)radiotherapy With Total Mesorectal Excision Only Is Not Sufficient to Prevent Lateral Local Recurrence in Enlarged Nodes: Results of the Multicenter Lateral Node Study of Patients With Low cT3/4 Rectal Cancer,  Atsushi Ogura; Tsuyoshi Konishi; Chris Cunningham; Julio Garcia-Aguilar; Henrik Iversen; Shigeo Toda; In Kyu Lee; Hong Xiang Lee; Keisuke Uehara,; Peter Lee; Hein Putter; Cornelis J.H. van de Velde, Geerard L. Beets, Harm J.T. Rutten; and Miranda Kusters,  Commentary by: Kheng-Seong Ng, Michael J. Solomon,  Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision Why, When, and How,  Marta Penna, Christopher Cunningham, Roel Hompes,  Commentary by: Justin Maykel and Dong Yoon,  Reappraisal of the 5 centimetre rule of distal excision for carcinoma of the rectum: a study of distal intramural spread and of patients’ survival,  N S Williams, M F Dixon, D Johnston,  Commentary by: Gregory D Kennedy and S Thomas Kang,  Recurrence and survival after Total Mesorectal Excision for rectal cancer,  Heald RJ, Ryall,  Commentary by: Robert D Madoff and Paolo Goffredo,  Endoscopic surgery in the rectum.,  Buess G, Theiss R, Gunther M, Hutterer F, Pichlmaier H.,  Commentary by: Deborah S Keller and John Marks,  Improved survival with preoperative radiotherapy in resectable rectal cancer,  Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial,  Commentary by: Ravi Shridhar, ,  Section Three: Hemorrhoids,  Comparison of stapled haemorrhoidopexy with traditional excisional surgery for haemorrhoidal disease (eTHoS): a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial,  Watson AJ, Hudson J, Wood J, et al. ,  Commentary by: Charles M Friel and Andrew D Hawkins,  Haemorrhoids--postulated pathogenesis and proposed prevention.,  Burkitt DP, Graham-Stewart CW.,  Commentary by: Bruce Orkin, ,  Section Four: Diverticulitis,  Laparoscopic Peritoneal Lavage or Sigmoidectomy for Perforated Diverticulitis with Purulent Peritonitis: A Multicenter, parallel-group, randomized, open-label trial.,  Sandra Vernix, Gijsbert D Musters, et al.,  Commentary by: Norberto Garcia-Henriquez,  Surgery versus conservative management for recurrent and ongoing left-sided diverticulitis (DIRECT trial): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial,  Bryan J. M. van de Wall, Marguerite A. W. Stam, Werner A. Draaisma, R.Stellato, Willem A. Bemelman, Marja A. Boermeester, Ivo A. M. J. Broeders, Eric J. Belgers, Boudewijn R. Toorenvliet Hubert A. Prins, Esther C. J. Consten,  Commentary by: Tyler McKechnie, Cagla Eskicioglu, Jason Hall,  Randomized Clinical Trial of Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis,  Chabok A, Pahlman L, Hjern F, et al,  Commentary by: Richard Garfinkle and Marylise Boutros, ,  Section Five: Inflammatory Bowel Disease,  laparoscopic Ileocaecal Resection Versus Infliximab For Terminal Ileitis In Crohn’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled, Open-Label, Multicentre Trial,  Ponsioen CY, de Groof EJ, Eshuis EJ, Gardenbroek TJ, Bossuyt PMM, Hart A, Warusavitarne J, Buskens CJ, van Bodegraven AA, Brink MA, Consten ECJ, van Wagensveld BA, Rijk MCM, Crolla RMPH, Noomen CG, Houdijk APJ, Mallant RC, Boom M, Marsman WA, Stockmann HB, Mol B, de Groof AJ, Stokkers PC, D'Haens GR, Bemelman WA,  Commentary by: Allison M Ammann, Ian M. Paquette, Carla F. Justiniano,  Crohn’s disease management after intestinal resection: a randomised trial,  Peter De Cruz, Michael A Kamm, Amy L Hamilton, Kathryn J Ritchie, Efrosinia O Krejany, AlexandraGorelik, Danny Liew, Lani Prideaux, Ian C Lawrance, Jane M Andrews, Peter A Bampton, Peter R Gibson,Miles Sparrow, Rupert W Leong, Timothy H Florin, Richard B Gearry, Graham Radford-Smith, Finlay A Macrae, Henry Debinski, Warwick Selby, Ian Kronborg, Michael J Johnston, Rodney Woods, P Ross Elliott, Sally J Bell, Steven J Brown, William R Connell, Paul V Desmond,  Commentary by: Alessandro Finchers,  Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease After Ileocolic Resection Is Not Affected by Anastomotic Type: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial,  Robin S. McLeod, Bruce G. Wolff, Sue Ross, Robert Parkes, Margaret McKenzie Commentary by: Antonio Spinelli and Jacopo Crippa,  Are Random Biopsies Stills Useful for The Detection of Neoplasia Inpatients with IBD Undergoing Surveillance Colonoscopy with Chromoendoscopy?,  Moussata, D., Allez, M., Cazals-Hatem, D., et al.,  Commentary by: Totadri Dhimal, Zhaomin Xu,  Long-term Results of the Side-to-side Isoperistaltic Strictureplasty in Crohn Disease: 25-year Follow-up and Outcomes,  Michelassi F, Mege D, Rubin M, Hurst RD,  Commentary by: Erin B. Fennern David W Dietz,  Regional ileitis; a pathologic and clinical entity.,  Crohn BB, Ginzburg L, Oppenheimer GD,  Commentary by: Ada Graham, Neil Hyman,  Proctocolectomy with Ileal Reservoir and Anal Anastomosis,  Parks AG, Nicholls RJ, Belliveau P. Br J Surg.,  Commentary by: Arman Erkan, ,  Section Six: Colon Cancer,  Oxaliplatin, Flurouracil, and Leucovorin as Adjuvant Treatment for Colon Cancer,  T Andre, C Boni, L Mouneji-Boudiaf, M Navarro, J Tabernero, T Hickish, C Topham, M Zaninelli,,  Commentary by: Larissa Temple,  Duration of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer,  Grothey A, Sobrero AF, Shields T, et al.,  Commentary by: Mohamed A Tejani,  Standardized surgery for colonic cancer: complete mesocolic excision and central ligation--technical notes and outcomes.,  Hohenberger W, Weber K, Matzel K, Papadopoulos T, Merkel S,  Commentary by: Matt Albert,  Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy,  Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN et al,  Commentary by: W Donald Buie and Anthony R MacLean,  Survival after laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: long-term outcome of a randomised clinical trial (COLOR trial).,  Mark Buunen, Ruben Veldkamp, Wim C J Hop, Esther Kuhry, Johannes Jeekel, Eva Haglind, Lars Påhlman, Miguel A Cuesta, Simon Msika, Mario Morino, Antonio Lacy, Hendrik J Bonjer,  Commentary by: Tarik Sammour,  Colon Cancer Survival Is Associated With Increasing Number of Lymph Nodes Analyzed: A Secondary Survey of Intergroup Trial INT-0089,  T.E. Le Voyer, E.R. Sigurdson, A.L. Hanlon, et al,  Commentary by: Andrew Hill, Primal Singh, Niket Shah,  The Results of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in 1200 Patients with Peritoneal Malignancy,  Moran B, Cecil K, Chandrakumaran K, et al.,  Commentary by: Christopher T Aquina,  Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,  Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, et al.,  Commentary by: Fadwa Ali, Emina Huang,  Hereditary Factors in Cancer: Study of Two Large Midwestern Kindreds.,  Lynch HT, Shaw MW, Magnuson CW, Larsen AL, Krush AJ,  Commentary by: David B Stewart, ,  Section Seven: Anal SCC,  HPV Vaccine against Anal HPV Infection and Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia,  Palefsky JM, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, et al.,  Commentary by: Timothy J. Ridolfi, Kirk A Ludwig,  Combined Preoperative Radiation and Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal,  Norman D. Nigro, H. Gunter Seydel, Basil Considine, V. K. Vaitkevicius, Lawrence Leichman, And Jeannie J. Kinzie,  Commentary by: John T Jenkins, Elaine M Burns, ,  Section Eight: Fissure,  Internal sphincterotomy is superior to topical nitroglycerin in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: Results of a randomized, controlled trial by the Canadian Colorectal Surgical Trials Group,  Richard CS, Gregoire R, Plewes EA, Silverman R, Burul C, Buie D, Reznick R, Ross T, Burnstein M, O’Connor BI, Mukraj D, McLeod RS,  Commentary by: William C Cirrocco,  A randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glyceryl trinitrate ointment in treatment of anal fissure.,  Lund JN, Scholefield JH.,  Commentary by: Rory F. Kokelaar, Manish Chand,  A comparison of botulinum toxin and saline for the treatment of chronic anal fissure,  Maria G, Cassetta E, Gui D, Brisinda G, Bentivoglio AR, Albanese A.,  Commentary by: Sonia L Ramamoorthy ,  Maintenance therapy with unprocessed bran in the prevention of acute anal fissure recurrence,  S L Jensen,  Commentary by: Kyle G Cologne, ,  Section Nine: Anorectal Sepsis,  Perianal Abscesses and Fistulas: A study of 1023 Patients,  Ramanujam PS, Prasad M, Abcarian H, Tan AB.,  Commentary by: Christopher J. Steen, Raymond J Yap,  Clinical examination, endosonography, and MR imaging in preoperative assessment of fistula in ano: comparison with outcome-based reference standard.,  Buchanan GN, Halligan S, Bartram CI, et al,  Commentary by: Sean J Langenfeld, Rishi Batra,  A classification of fistula-in-ano.,  A.G. Parks, P.H. Gordon, J.D. Hardcastle,  Commentary by: Tracy Hull, A. Otero-Piñeiro, ,  Section Ten: Enhanced Recovery,  A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection.,  Basse L, Hjort Jakobsen D, Billesbolle P, Werner M, Kehlet H,  Commentary by: Deborah S Keller, Thais Reif de Paula, 


    John RT Monson MD, FRCS, FASCRS is a colorectal surgeon who trained in Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since 2024, he has served as a Professor of Surgery and Director of Intestinal Failure at Northwell Health, New York. He served as the Chair of Colorectal Surgery and Digestive Health and Surgery Institute at Advent Health from 2016 until 2024.  His areas of expertise include the use of minimally invasive technologies in colorectal cancer treatment, including Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) laparoscopy and robotic surgery. Dr. Monson is credited with leading the development of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the United Kingdom. He is a former Chair of the U.K.'s National Training Program. His research encompasses a broad range of cancer-related areas including the development of national standards and qualitative assessments of decision-making in cancer care. .An internationally recognized lecturer and award-winning author of more than 400 peer-reviewed papers and more than 100 book chapters, he is currently coeditor of Diseases of Colon and Rectum.

    He is a former vice president of the British Association of Surgical Oncology, has served on the Executive Council of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.  He is a Fellow of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons and served in many roles including on their Executive Council and as Chairman of the Research Committee.  He was a founding member and vice president of the OSTRiCh Consortium on Rectal Cancer Care which ultimately became the National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer (NAPRC). He is currently a member of the NAPRC Executive Committee.  He is a Fellow of all four Royal Colleges of Surgeons – Ireland, England, Edinburgh and Glasgow – and an Honorary Fellow of three of the four.


    Lawrence Lee MD PhD joined McGill University division of General Surgery as a colon and rectal surgeon in 2017. His main speciality clinical interests relate to the treatment of colorectal neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disease. In particular, Dr. Lee specializes in advanced minimally invasive and endoluminal approaches to the treatment of colorectal disease using flexible endoscopy, transanal endoscopic surgery, and Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TA-TME). His research interests include health technology assessment and comparative effectiveness research for surgical technologies and innovations, with emphasis on the practice of colorectal surgery. Other areas of research include perioperative assessment, and functional and patient-reported outcomes after major abdominal surgery. Dr. Lee completed his General Surgery residency at McGill during which time he completed an MSc in Epidemiology and a PhD in Healthcare Economics. He then completed a Colon and Rectal Surgery Fellowship at Florida Hospital in Orlando, Florida. He is the recipient of the SAGES Researcher-in-Training award, among other national and international prizes and scholarships for his research and clinical work.

    Dr. Lee is a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada and a diplomate of the American Board of Surgery, and holds a specialist certificate from the Collège des Médecins du Québec.                                                                                            


    Fergal J. Fleming, MB BCh BAO, MD, FRCS is assistant professor of surgery and oncology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. He has been a Fellow in the URMC Division of Colorectal Surgery since 2009.

    Dr. Fleming was awarded his medical degree from the University College of Dublin, Ireland in 1998. He is also a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Dr. Fleming's surgical residency included extensive training in general, vascular and hepatobiliary surgery, as well as dedicated training in colorectal surgery. He was successfully awarded the Intercollegiate Specialist Examination (UK and Ireland) in general surgery with a sub-specialty interest in colorectal surgery in 2009. In addition to being licensed to practice medicine in the state of New York, Dr. Fleming is on the Specialist Register of the Irish Medical Council in recognition of his specialist training in the field of surgery.

    Throughout his clinical training, Dr. Fleming's academic career flourished with numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals, as well as distinguished prizes and awards, including a Surgical Research Fellowship in 2002 and the Irish Journal of Medical Science Doctor Award, Surgical Section in 2004. He was also awarded a diploma in Cancer Chemoprevention from the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland in 2007.