1st Edition

A Clash of Paradigms Response and Development in the South Pacific

By Suan Maiava Copyright 2001

    This title was first published in 2001. This study indicates that researchers have far to go in understanding and assessing how development projects work. The author shows that, often, the perception of failure is not shared by those whom were intended to benefit. She uses a case study of Samoan villagers introduced to cattle farming to examine the wider development process and challenge the conventional theories. By drawing on people-centred perspectives that give much greater weight to the role of culture in development, the volume does not simply criticize development project management, but suggests practical and positive ways forward, encouraging spontaneous indigenous development which should be supported by projects where appropriate.

    List of Tables -- List of Figures -- List of Plates -- Foreword -- Acknowledgements -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- Glossary of Samoan Words and Phrases -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Establishing the Theoretical Context -- Modernisation -- The Beginning of an Anti-Thesis: Liberal Modernisation -- The Third Paradigm -- People-Centred Development -- Populism: Spontaneous Development -- The Third Paradigm: An Appraisal -- Post-Modernism -- A Theory of Development for the Pacific: MIRAB -- The Return of Modernisation: Neo-liberalism -- 3 Development in Practice: Development Projects -- The Development Project -- The Project Cycle -- Planning for People-Centred Development -- Development as Cultural Interaction -- 4 Samoa, Cattle and Development: Cross-Cultural Interpretations -- Culture as Constraint: Interpretations of the Role of Samoan Culture in Development -- Interpretations of the Role of Samoan Culture in Development of the Smallholder Cattle Sector -- Culture as Motivation: The Emergence of an Anti-Thesis -- 5 Understanding Samoan Culture -- The Meaning of Culture -- The Importance of Family -- Rank, Status and Social Change -- Competition, Co-operation, Community and Contradictions -- Economic Values: Work, Income and Money; Distribution, Exchange and Obligation -- Fa 'alavelave -- Conclusion -- 6 Cattle in Samoan Culture: Fa’alavelave -- The Research: Asking the Right Questions -- In the Field -- A Case Study of a Funeral -- A Survey of Fa 'alavelave -- Farmers’ Thinking About Cattle in Fa 'alavelave -- The Importance, Usefulness and Meaning of Contributing Cattle to Fa'alavelave -- The Social Context of Contributing Cattle to Fa 'alavelave: Obligation, Motivation, Ambivalence and Change Conclusion -- 7 Cattle in Samoan Society and Livelihood Systems: Farmers’ Experience with Cattle -- The Experience of One Village -- Cattle and Samoan Society -- Cattle, Land Tenure and Social Change -- Cattle in the Rural Livelihood System -- Technical Issues and Farmer Innovation -- Conclusion -- 8 The Success of Cattle Projects in Samoa: An Historical Perspective -- Introduction -- The History of Cattle and Cattle Projects in Samoa -- The Pioneer Phase -- The Rapid Expansion Phase -- Disillusionment -- The Turnaround -- The National Herd Success in the Smallholder Sector -- Success Found in This Research -- Other Measures of Success -- Explaining the Turnaround -- Conclusion -- 9 Exploding the Myths -- Revisiting the Assumptions About Farmer Behaviour -- Exposing the Myths -- 10 Conclusion -- Locating this Research in Cattle Projects in Samoa and the Pacific -- The Findings of This Research -- Accounting for These Observations in Theory -- From Theory to Experience: What Really Happened -- A New Theory? -- Populism and Fundamental Needs Conclusion: Asking the Right Questions -- Appendix 1: The Survey of Smallholder Cattle Farmers -- Appendix 2: Map of Samoa -- Bibliography -- Index.