A Guide to Cancer: Origins and Revelations, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

A Guide to Cancer

Origins and Revelations, 1st Edition

By Melford John

CRC Press

212 pages | 14 Color Illus. | 35 B/W Illus.

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Description

A Guide to Cancer: Origins and Revelations unfolds the complex and fascinating topic of cancer in two ways: firstly, no specialist knowledge is assumed on the part of the reader, and secondly, despite the serious nature of the topics, the book aims to stimulate interest, provoke thought, and paradoxically entertain. It takes an array of complex topics and breaks them down in clear, concise terms, so that anyone with a basic knowledge of science can understand. The book is aimed at the general public as well as students of biological subjects, first and second year university students, and researchers in the nascent field of cancer genomics.

Table of Contents

Origins

Charles Darwin

Anaximander

Titus Lucretius Carus

Gregor Mendel

About genes

Decoding life

Back to Mendel’s work

About chromosomes

Mutations

Alleles

DNA repair

What causes cancer?

Inheriting cancer

Retinoblastomas

Hereditary cancer

Familial cancers

Sporadic cancers

Why Cancer?

Origins

The pragmatic gene

Is evolution for real?

The driving force of cancer

Mutations change proteins

Architects of cancer

Conservation of function

Conservation of functional components

Protein families

Proteins that are enzymes

Replacement mutations

Frameshift mutations

What drives cancer?

Francis Crick, James Watson, and Rosalind Franklin

War on Cancer

Fighting over differences

Out of Africa

Mortality

Vaccinations

Cancer

War, what is it good for?

The Human Genome

The Road less travelled

Tumor Growth

The hallmarks of cancer

Differentiated cells

Stem cells

Malignancy

One giant leap

Tumor growth models

Branching of tumor colonies

Stem Cell resistance to radiotherapy

Tumor Suppression

The immune burden

Is evolution bothered?

Metastasis

The immune response

The inflammatory response

The innate immune system

Macrophages

Neutrophils

Natural killer cells

Mast cells

The complement system

Pathogen recognition

Targeting cancer cells

Major histocompatibility complex proteins

Innate immunosurveillance

Adaptive Tumor Suppression

The immune response

Antigens

Antibodies

The problem with epitopes

Strangers in the night

Dendritic cells

B-cells

Cytotoxic T-cells

Helper T-cells

Acquired immune deficiency s yndrome and cancer

Surgery

Surgery in cancer treatment

Surgical Methods

Morcellators

The Cancer Landscape

Control of gene expression

Promoters and enhancers

Cancer by cell type

Carcinomas

World Health Organization (WHO) classification of cancer

Breast cancer

Hematopoietic cancers

Chromosome defects and acute myelogenous leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia

Burkitt’s lymphoma

Other cancers

Brain tumors

Childhood cancers

The Immortal Cell

The Primordial urge

Henrietta lacks’ cells

The Senescent cell

Cell division

Growth factors

Cell signaling

The cell cycle

Inside hayflick’s limit

Cell death

Radiotherapy

Staging of cancers

Radiation treatment

Prostate cancer

Lung cancer

Breast cancer

Driver Mutations

Oncogenes

An updated definition of an oncogene

Driver pathways

Growth factors

Pathways that control cell division

The Ras signaling pathway

The Ras onocogene

tumor suppressor genes

An updated definition of a TSG

The role of p53

Li-fraumeni syndrome

Smoking and p53

Chemotherapy

Cancer chaos

Cell replacement

Chemotherapy

How chemotherapeutic drugs work

Antioxidants

Reactive oxygen species

Ageing

Antioxidants

Antioxidants in supplements

Antioxidants and heart disease

Antioxidants and cancer

Beta-carotene and lung cancer

Vitamin E, selenium, and prostate cancer

Avoiding antioxidants

Why don’t antioxidants protect against cancer?

Ultaviolet rays and reactive oxygen species

DNA damage

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Pigmentary traits

Skin cancer prevention

Vitamin D

About vitamin D

Obesity

Vitamin D deficiency

Forms of vitamin D

Potency of D2 and D3

Vitamin D and lifestyle

Synthesis of vitamin D

Vitamin D and cancer risk

How does vitamin D offer protection?

Cell adhesion, invasion, and metastases

Cell division and differentiation

Apoptosis

Recommended doses of vitamin D

Vitamin D and sunscreens

Viruses

Communicable diseases

Human immunodeficiency virus

How pathogens drive cancer

Helicobacter pylori

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis C

Human papillomavirus

Metastasis

Metastatic beginnings

Metastatic sites

Cell adhesion

The Metastatic cascade

Invasion

Detachment

Anoikis

Intravasation

Extravasation

Treatment

Are macrophages double agents?

Are neutrophils double agents?

Revelations

Complexity of cancer phenotype

Diagnosing cancer

Cancer types may also be identified by other techniques

Screening

Lifestyle changes

Treatment

Adapting to drug treatment

Targeted therapy

Anti-angiogenic drugs

Immunotherapy

Cytokine treatment

Cancer vaccines

Tumor cell vaccines

Targeting breast cancer

Adoptive cell transfer

Therapeutic antibodies

Checkpoint inhibitors

Summary

About the Author

Melford John completed a first degree in Biochemistry at The University of London, followed by a PhD in Biochemistry, also at The University of London. He has been a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of the West Indies for 6 years, where he teaches biochemistry to medical students. His research is devoted to cancer genomics. Before coming to the University of the West Indies he spent 9 years at The European Bioinformatics Institute in Cambridge, UK as a database administrator in the Protein Data Bank in Europe group (PDBe).

About the Series

Pocket Guides to Biomedical Sciences

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED003000
MEDICAL / Allied Health Services / General
MED062000
MEDICAL / Oncology
SCI017000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Cytology