The history of the predominantly Muslim world is examined within the context of world history. It examines political, economic, and broad cultural developments, as well as specifically religious ones. The themes of the book are tradition and adaptation: it examines the tensions between the desire of Muslims to maintain continuity with their legacy and their recognition of the need to adapt to changing conditions.
Part One: Mongol Hegemony, 1260-1405 1. The Great Transformation The Mongol Khanates. The Qipchaq Khanate. The Il-khanate. The Chaghatay Khanate. New Centers of Islamic Culture. The Mamluke Empire. The Delhi Sultanate. The Ottoman Sultanate. Scourges. Plague. Timur Lang. Conclusion 2. Unity and Diversity in Islamic Traditions Intellectual Life in the Fourteenth Century. The End of the Golden Age?. Against All Odds. Law. The Queen of the Sciences. The Closing of the Gate of Ijtihad? The Varieties of Religious Expression. Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy. The Proliferation of Sufi Groups. Conclusion. Part 2: Muslim Ascendancy, 1405-1750 3. The Central Muslim Lands The Ottoman Empire. The Creation of an Empire. Society. The State. The Economy. Culture. From Dominance to Parity. The Arabian Peninsula. The Holy Cities. Yemen and Oman . The Eurasian Steppes. Conclusion. 4. The Umma In The West The Iberian Peninsula. Mudejars. Granada. Moriscos. The Maghrib. The Land. The Berber States. Crusaders, Corsairs, and Janissaries. The Regencies. Alawite Morocco. The Sudan. Trans-Saharan Trade. The Islamization of the Western and Central Sudan. The Islamization of the Eastern Sudan. The Intensification of the Slave Trade. Islam in the Sudan. Conclusion. 5. Central Asia and Iran Central Asia. The Timurids. The Uzbek Khanate. The Islamization of Central Asia. Iran. The Nizaris Regroup. The Safavids: A Militant Sufi Order. The First Twelver Shi`ite Empire. The Apocalypse Postponed. Society. The State. The Decline of Tariqa Sufism. The Economy. Culture. The End of an Empire. Conclusion. 6. South Asia South Asia after the Delhi Sultanate. Southern and Central South Asia. The Indo-Gangetic Plain. Islam in South Asia. Patterns of Muslim Influence. South Asian Sufism. An Isma`ili Revival. The Timurids in South Asia: The Mughals. The Formation of the Mughal Empire. Society. The State. The Economy. Culture. The End of Imperial Rule. Conclusion. 7. The Indian Ocean Basin A Muslim Lake. The East Coast of Africa. Berbera and the Land of the Zanj. The Impact of Imperialism . Kerala. The Land of Pepper. The Impact of Imperialism. Southeast Asia. The Malayo-Polynesian Lands. The Lure of the Spice Islands. The Impact of Imperialism. The Appeal of a Universal Faith. A Loss of Dynamism. Conclusion Part 3: The World Turned Upside Down, 1750-Present 8. Reform and Renewal, 1750-1875 Developments within Twelver Shi`ism. The Growth of Mujtahid Authority. Twelver Ritual Life. Sunni Reform Movements. A Search for First Principles. Jihad Movements. European Intervention and Annexation. South Asia. Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Basin. The Caucasus and Central Asia. North Africa. Governmental Responses to External Threats. The Ottoman Empire. Iran. Cultural Fragmentation. Conclusion. 9. The Loss of Sovereignty, 1875-1920 European Imperialism, 1875-1914. The Balkans. North and West Africa. The Western Indian Ocean. Central Asia and Iran. Southeast Asia. Imperial Rule. Encounters with Tradition. Movements of Political and Social Reform. Movements of Religious Reform and Renewal. World War I. Conclusion. 10. The Interwar Years, 1920-1939 Independent Muslim States. The Republic of Turkey. The Pahlavi Monarchy of Iran. States in the Arabian Peninsula. The Kingdom of Afghanistan. Muslim Minorities in the USSR. Nationalist Movements. North Africa. The Eastern Arab World. South Asia. Southeast Asia. Islamic Movements. Tensions Between Secular and Religious Muslims. Religious Activists: Reformers and Traditionalists. The Muslim Brothers. Abul A`la Mawdudi. Tablighi Jama`at. Indonesian Religious Organizations. Women's Issues . Conclusion. 11. Regaining Sovereignty, 1939-1970 World War II. The Middle East. Southeast Asia. Africa. South Asia. Formal Independence. The 1940s. The 1950s. The 1960s and 1970s. Muslim Minorities in the USSR and China. Disillusionment with Secular Nationalism. Pakistan. Indonesia. Iran. The Arab World. Turkey. Voices of Urgency. Conclusion. 12. New Directions, 1970 - Present The Watershed Years. The Arab World. Iran. South Asia. Afghanistan. Southeast Asia. Responding to the Divine Imperative: Political Islam. Egypt and Jordan. Pakistan. Southeast Asia. North Africa. Turkey. Responding to the Divine Imperative: Jihadism. Jihad as the Means to Implement an Islamic State. Jihad as National Liberation. Global Jihad. Twenty-First-Century Challenges and Opportunities. A Siege Mentality. A Crisis of Authority. Economic and Social Issues. The Prospects for Islamism and Sufism. New Frontiers. Conclusion. Glossary. Index. Documents. Maps.