A History of the Muslim World to 1750: The Making of a Civilization, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

A History of the Muslim World to 1750

The Making of a Civilization, 2nd Edition

By Vernon O. Egger

© 2018 – Routledge

568 pages

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Description

A History of the Muslim World to 1750 traces the development of Islamic civilization from the career of the Prophet Muhammad to the mid-eighteenth century. Encompassing a wide range of significant events within the period, its coverage includes the creation of the Dar al-Islam (the territory ruled by Muslims), the fragmentation of society into various religious and political groups including the Shi'ites and Sunnis, the series of catastrophes in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that threatened to destroy the civilization, and the rise of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires.

Including the latest research from the last ten years, this second edition has been updated and expanded to cover the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. Fully refreshed and containing over sixty images to highlight the key visual aspects, this book offers students a balanced coverage of the Muslim world from the Iberian Peninsula to South Asia, and detailed accounts of all cultures. The use of maps, primary sources, timelines, and a glossary further illuminates the fascinating yet complex world of the pre-modern Middle East.

Covering art, architecture, religious institutions, theological beliefs, popular religious practice, political institutions, cuisine, and much more, A History of the Muslim World to 1750 is the perfect introduction for all students of the history of Islamic civilization and the Middle East.

Reviews

"Egger's history of the Islamic world from its civilizational foundation in the 7th century to the gradual ending of its political predominence in the mid-18th century provides an excellent overview for students embarking on the study of world history, the Middle East, or Islamic history. Resisting a still common Arabocentric and early Islamic bias in the field, Egger provides a balanced account of the civilization's development through a series of tightly constructed historical and thematic chapters."

Nabil Al-Tikriti, University of Mary Washington, USA

Table of Contents

Part One The Formative Period, 610–950

1. Origins

Southwestern Asia in the Seventh Century

The Byzantine Empire

The Sasanian Empire

The Arabian Peninsula

The Rise of Islam

The Meccan Environment

Muhammad

A Framework for a New Community

Conclusion

notes

further reading

 

2. Arab Imperialism

Arab Conquests

Arabia and the Fertile Crescent

Iran

North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula

Transoxiana and the Indus River Valley

Umayyad Administration

The Caliphate

The Administration of Non-Muslims

The Administration of Muslims

The Rationalization of Society

Dissolution of the Arab Empire

Conclusion

notes

further reading

 

3. The Development of Sectarianism

‘Ali and the Politics of Division

Political Dissension

‘Ali’s Caliphate: Shi‘ites and Kharijites

Karbala

The Abbasid Revolution

Shi‘ite Identities

The Ghulat and the Zaydis

The Husayni Alids

The Shi‘ite Movement

The Sunni Consensus

Conclusion

further reading

 

4. The Center Cannot Hold: Three Caliphates

The Abbasid Caliphate

The Early Period

Military and Economic Problems

The Assertion of Regional Autonomy

The Fatimid Caliphate

Isma‘ili Activism

A Second Caliphate in the Umma

The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba

The Consolidation of Umayyad Power

A Third Caliphate in the Umma

Economic Networks

A Single Economy

Overland Trade

Maritime Commerce

Conclusion

notes

further reading

 

5. Synthesis and Creativity

The Origins of Islamic Law

Assimilation and Adaptation

Groping Toward an Islamic Jurisprudence

The Development of the Shari‘a

Early Sufism

The Contemplative Life

Testing the Limits of Transcendence

The Accommodation of Sufism

The Reception of Science and Philosophy

Science and Mathematics

Philosophy

The Development of an Islamic Theology

The Reception of Rationalism

The Critique of Rationalism

Conclusion

notes

further reading

 

 

 

PART TWO Civilization vs. Chaos, 950–1260

6. Filling the Vacuum of Power, 950–1100

The Buyid Sultanate

The Advent of the Turks

Origins

The Saljuq Invasion

The Great Saljuqs and the Saljuqs of Rum

The Fatimid Empire

The Conquest of Egypt and Palestine

Religious Policies

The New Egyptian Economy

Ominous Developments

The Nizaris ("Assassins")

The Muslim West

Norman Invasions of Muslim Territory

The "Hilali Invasion" of Ifriqiya

A Berber Empire

The Collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Andalus

The Incorporation of Andalus into the Maghrib

Conclusion

further reading

7. Barbarians at the Gates, 1100–1260

The Loss of Andalus

Provisional Solutions: The Great Berber Empires

The Disintegration of the Almohads and of Andalus

The Period of the Crusades

The First Crusade

The Franks on the Defensive

Realignment in the East

The Collapse of the Great Saljuqs

Sunni–Nizari Rapprochement

The Mongol Campaigns

Conclusion

further reading

8. The Consolidation of Traditions

Science and Philosophy

Mathematics and the Natural Sciences

Philosophy

The Sunni Resolution to the Tension between Reason and Revelation

Consolidating Institutions: Sufism

The Emergence of Lodges and Tariqas

Speculative Mysticism

Consolidating Institutions: Shi‘ism

Twelver Shi‘ites

The Isma‘ilis

The Impact of "the Foreign Sciences" and Jurisprudence

The Transmission of Knowledge

Schools

The Legacy to Europe

english words derived from arabic

Conclusion

notes

further reading

9. The Muslim Commonwealth

Frontiers and Identities

Frontiers Defining the Dar al-Islam

Frontiers within the Dar al-Islam

Identities

The City and the Countryside

The City

The Countryside

Conversion to Islam

A Muslim Minority

The Pace of Conversion Quickens

The Issue of Authority in the Muslim World

Conclusion

notes

further reading

 

Part Three Mongol Hegemony, 1260–1405

10. The Great Transformation

The Mongol Khanates

The Qipchaq Khanate

The Il-khanate

The Chaghatay Khanate

New Centers of Islamic Culture

The Mamluke Empire

The Delhi Sultanate

The Ottoman Sultanate

Scourges

Plague

Timur Lang

Conclusion

further reading

11. Unity and Diversity in Islamic Traditions

Intellectual Life in the Fourteenth Century

The End of the "Golden Age"?

Against All Odds

Law

The Queen of the Sciences

The "Closing of the Gate of Ijtihad"?

The Varieties of Religious Expression

"Orthodoxy" and "Heterodoxy"

The Proliferation of Sufi Groups

Conclusion

further reading

PART FOUR MUSLIM ASCENDANCY, 1405–1750

12. THE CENTRAL MUSLIM LANDS

The Ottoman Empire

The Creation of an Empire

Society

The State

The Economy

Culture

From Dominance to Parity

The Arabian Peninsula

The Holy Cities

Yemen and Oman

The Eurasian Steppes

Conclusion

further reading

13. THE UMMA IN THE WEST

The Iberian Peninsula

Mudejars

Granada

Moriscos

The Maghrib

The Land

The Berber States

Crusaders, Corsairs, and Janissaries

The Regencies

Alawite Morocco

The Sudan

Trans-Saharan Trade

The Islamization of the Western and Central Sudan

The Islamization of the Eastern Sudan

The Intensification of the Slave Trade

Islam in the Sudan

Conclusion

further reading

14. CENTRAL ASIA AND IRAN

Central Asia

The Timurids

The Uzbek Khanate

The Islamization of Central Asia

Iran

The Nizaris Regroup

The Safavids: A Militant Sufi Order

The First Twelver Shi‘ite Empire

The Apocalypse Postponed

Society

The State

The Decline of Tariqa Sufism in Iran

The Economy

Culture

The End of an Empire

Conclusion

further reading

15. SOUTH ASIA

South Asia after the Delhi Sultanate

Southern and Central South Asia

The Indo–Gangetic Plain

Islam in South Asia

Patterns of Muslim Influence

South Asian Sufism

An Isma‘ili Revival

The Timurids in South Asia: The Mughals

The Formation of the Mughal Empire

Society

The State

The Economy

Culture

The End of Imperial Rule

Conclusion

further reading

16. THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN

A Muslim Lake

The East Coast of Africa

Berbera and the Land of the Zanj

The Impact of Imperialism

Kerala

The Land of Pepper

The Impact of Imperialism

Southeast Asia

The Malayo–Polynesian Lands

Muslims Establish a Presence in Southeast Asia

The Impact of Imperialism

The Appeal of a Universal Faith

A Loss of Dynamism

Conclusion

further reading

Glossary

Index

 

About the Author

Vernon O. Egger is Professor Emeritus of Middle Eastern and Islamic History at Georgia Southern University. His other books include The Muslim World Since 1260 and A Fabian in Egypt: Salamah Musa and the Rise of the Professional Classes in Egypt, 1909–1939.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS001030
HISTORY / Africa / North
HIS002000
HISTORY / Ancient / General
HIS026000
HISTORY / Middle East / General
HIS037010
HISTORY / Medieval
HIS037040
HISTORY / Modern / 17th Century
HIS037050
HISTORY / Modern / 18th Century
HIS037090
HISTORY / Modern / 16th Century
HIS050000
HISTORY / Asia / Central Asia