782 Pages
    by Routledge

    782 Pages
    by Routledge

    A History of the Roman People offers students a comprehensive, up-to-date, readable introduction to the whole span of Roman history. Richly illustrated, this fully updated volume takes readers through the mists of Roman prehistory and a survey of the peoples of pre-Roman Italy to a balanced, thoughtful account of the complexities of the Roman Republic, its evolution into a full-fledged empire, and its ultimate decline. This latest edition enhances the political narrative with explorations of elements of daily life in the Roman world.

    New features in this edition include:

    • Addition of boxes that expand on interesting elements of Roman culture mentioned only in passing in the main text. The visual arrangement of the text helps students bear in mind what is supplemental to the central narrative
    • Increased emphasis on the contributions of women to Roman society and in religious matters
    • Incorporation of recent archaeological finds and current debates

    A History of the Roman People is an excellent introduction for those with no background in Roman history. Its clear, accessible language makes it perfect for undergraduate readers in courses on Roman history and Roman culture. More experienced students wanting to expand their knowledge will also find it a rich resource for the full sweep of Roman antiquity.

    List of figures


    Chapter 1

    Roman History: Its Geographic and Human Foundations

    Introduction to Roman History


    The Peoples and Cultures of Pre-Roman Italy

    The Peoples of Italy ca. 750 to 400 B.C.E.

    The Greater Picture

    Chapter 2

    Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans in Pre-Roman Italy

    The Phoenicians

    Tyre and Its Colonies

    Greek Colonization

    Decline of the Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily

    The Etruscans

    The Land of the Etruscans

    Sources for Etruscan History

    Etruscan Economic Life

    Etruscan Cities and Their Sociopolitical Organization

    Women and the Etruscan Family

    Etruscan Culture and Religion

    Etruscan Art and Architecture

    The Role of the Etruscans in Roman History

    The Fate of the Etruscans


    Chapter 3

    Early Rome to 500 B.C.E.

    The Ancient Literary Tradition and Its Sources

    Reconstructing Early Roman History

    The Early Roman State

    The General Picture

    Chapter 4

    Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values

    The Principle of Hierarchy

    The Family

    Patrons and Clients

    Slaves and Freedmen

    Roman Names and the Gens

    Classes in Roman Society

    The Openness of Early Roman Society to Outsiders

    Early Roman Religion

    The State, Religion, and War

    The Values of Early Roman Society

    Overview and Significance

    Chapter 5

    From Tyrant Kings to Oligarchic Republic, 509 to 287 B.C.E.

    Sources of Information for Early Republican History

    From Kingship to Republic, ca. 510 to ca. 490 B.C.E.

    The Early Form of the Republic

    The Priesthoods and Priestly Colleges

    The Dynamics of Change, 509 to 287 B.C.E.

    Growing Plebeian Identity and Rights, ca. 500 to ca. 400 B.C.E.

    A New Period of Reform, 367 to 287 B.C.E.

    The Oligarchic Realities of the Roman Republican Constitution after 287 B.C.E.

    Chapter 6

    The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact, 509 to 264 B.C.E.

    Conflicts with Immediate Neighbors

    The Gallic Sack of Rome

    Up from Defeat

    Initial Conquests in Central Italy

    The Roman System of Alliances and Citizen Communities

    Renewed War and Conquests in Central Italy

    The Pyrrhic Wars and the Conquest of Peninsular Italy

    The Manipular Army

    The Economic, Social, and Cultural Impact of Roman Expansion in Italy by 264 B.C.E.

    Rome’s Rise Surveyed and Explained

    Chapter 7

    The First Punic War, Northern Italy, and Illyrian Pirates, 264 to 219 B.C.E.

    Sources for Roman History from 264 to 133 B.C.E.

    A New Chapter in Rome’s Expansion


    Sicily and the Outbreak of the First Punic War, 264 B.C.E.

    Initial Carthaginian Setbacks, 263 and 262 B.C.E.

    Expansion of the War

    A Titanic Struggle, 260 to 241 B.C.E.

    The Truceless War and Roman Trickery, 241 to 238 B.C.E.

    Roman Conquests in Northern Italy

    The Pirates of Illyria, 229 and 228 B.C.E.

    Renewed War with the Gauls, 225 to 220 B.C.E.

    Pirates Again, 220 to 219 B.C.E.

    Rome’s Rise as a Mediterranean Power Surveyed

    Chapter 8

    War with Hannibal: The Second Punic War, 218 to 201 B.C.E.

    Carthaginian Recovery after 238 B.C.E.

    The Ebro Treaty

    Hannibal and the Outbreak of the Second Punic War

    Causes of the Second Punic War

    Hannibal’s War Strategy

    Roman War Plans

    Hannibal’s March to the Alps

    Hannibal’s Early Victories, 218 and 217 B.C.E.

    Fabius Maximus, Cunctator, 217 B.C.E.

    The Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.E.

    Further Carthaginian Successes

    The Roman Recovery

    The First Macedonian War, 215 to 205 B.C.E.

    The War in Spain, 218 to 211 B.C.E.

    Scipio Africanus

    The Battle at the Metaurus and the Death of Hasdrubal, 207 B.C.E.

    The End Approaches

    The Battle of Zama (Naraggara), 202 B.C.E.

    Peace Terms

    Overview and Reasons for Roman Success

    Aftermath and the Fate of Hannibal

    Chapter 9

    Roman Imperialism East and West, 200 to 133 B.C.E.

    Provincial Governors

    Roman Imperialism in the East

    Antiochus III (the Great) of Syria and Philip V of Macedon

    The Second Macedonian War, 200 to 196 B.C.E.

    The Aggressions of Antiochus III (the Great), 196 to 192 B.C.E.

    The War with Antiochus III (the Great), 192 to 188 B.C.E.

    The Third Macedonian War, 171 to 168/167 B.C.E.

    Rome and the Hellenistic East after Pydna (168 B.C.E.)

    Roman Imperialism in the West, 200 to 133 B.C.E.

    Northern Italy

    Successes and Failures in Spain

    The Third Punic War, 149 to 146 B.C.E.

    The Viriathic and Numantine Wars in Spain, 151 to 133 B.C.E.E.

    Overview and Assessment

    Chapter 10

    The Transformation of Roman Life, 264 to 133 B.C.E.

    The Impact of War and Overseas Expansion on Small Farmers

    Coinage and the Monetization of the Economy

    The Growth of Trade, Cities, Industry, and Commerce

    Social Change and Discontent

    Political Developments

    Overview and Assessment

    Chapter 11

    The Great Cultural Synthesis, 264 to 133 B.C.E.

    Architecture and Art


    Specialization in Genres

    Prose Literature





    Overview and Prospect

    Chapter 12

    The Gracchi and the Struggle over Reforms, 133 to 121 B.C.E.

    Sources for the Period of the Gracchi, 133 to 121 B.C.E.

    Mounting Problems

    The Tribuneship of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C.E.

    Tiberius’ Motives

    The Land Commission and Its Impact

    Rome’s Allies and the Death of Scipio

    Gaius Gracchus, Tribune of the Plebs, 123 to 122 B.C.E.

    The Reforms of Gaius Gracchus

    Livius Drusus

    The Fall and Death of Gaius Gracchus

    The Popularis Political Legacy of the Gracchi

    Chapter 13

    Destructive Rivalries, Marius, and the Social War, 121 to 88 B.C.E.

    Sources for the Period from 121 to 88 B.C.E.

    Populares and Optimates

    The Senatus Consultum Ultimum

    Post-Gracchan Land Legislation

    Other Internal Matters

    The Imperial Background to Domestic Politics

    The Popularis Rise of Gaius Marius (157 to 86 B.C.E.)

    The Slave Revolt in Sicily, 104 to 100 B.C.E.

    Piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean

    The Political Fall of Marius

    A Decade of Optimate Domination

    The Explosive Reforms of M. Livius Drusus the Younger, 91 B.C.E.

    The Italian, or Social, War, 90 to 88 B.C.E.

    The Aftermath of the Social War

    Chapter 14

    Civil War and Sulla’s Reactionary Settlement, 88 to 78 B.C.E.

    Sources for the Years 88 to 78 B.C.E.

    Mithridates VI Eupator (134 to 63 B.C.E.)

    The Rise of Sulla (138 to 78 B.C.E.)

    Cinna’s Consulship, 87 B.C.E.

    Marius and His Reign of Terror

    The Significance of Marius

    Cinna’s Time (Cinnanum Tempus)

    Sulla and the East, 87 to 84 B.C.E.

    Sulla’s Return to Italy, 83 to 82 B.C.E.

    Sulla’s Reign of Terror, 82 B.C.E.

    Sulla’s Dictatorship and Political Reforms

    The Failure of Sulla

    Chapter 15

    Personal Ambitions: The Failure of Sulla’s Optimate Oligarchy, 78 to 60 B.C.E.

    Sources for Roman History from 78 to 30 B.C.E.

    The Rise of Pompey the Great (106 to 48 B.C.E.), 78 to 71 B.C.E.

    The Great (Third) Mithridatic War (74/73 to 63 B.C.E.) and Lucullus’ Bid for Glory,
    74 to 66 B.C.E.

    Crassus Seeks Advantage in the Slave War against Spartacus in Italy, 73 to 71 B.C.E.

    The Consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C.E.

    Cicero Gains Fame in the Trial of Verres, 70 B.C.E.

    Tribunes Make Their Marks, and Pompey Takes Control of the East, 67 to 62 B.C.E.

    Rome in the Absence of Pompey

    After Pompey’s Return, 62 to 60 B.C.E.

    Chapter 16

    Caesar Wins and Is Lost, 60 to 44 B.C.E.

    Caesar Partners with Pompey and Crassus, 60 to 58 B.C.E.

    Gaul and the Foundation of Caesar’s Might, 58 to 56 B.C.E.

    Disorder at Rome and a Renewed Partnership, 58 to 56 B.C.E.

    Caesar Overcomes Challenges in Gaul, 56 to 52 B.C.E.

    Caesar’s Partners Strive to Keep Up, 56 to 53 B.C.E.

    Rivalry and Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, 53 to 48 B.C.E.

    Caesar’s Dictatorships and Final Victory, 48 to 45 B.C.E.

    Caesar’s Work of Reconstruction

    The Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 B.C.E.

    The Question of Monarchy

    The Significance of Caesar

    Chapter 17

    The Last Years of the Republic, 44 to 30 B.C.E.

    Marcus Antonius Tries to Take Control, 44 to 43 B.C.E.

    The Triumvirate of Octavian, Antonius, and Lepidus, 43 to 36 B.C.E.

    Antonius and Cleopatra Rule the East, 37 to 32 B.C.E.

    The Approach and Renewal of Civil War, 32 to 30 B.C.E.

    The End of the Republic

    Chapter 18

    Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic, ca. 133 to ca. 30 B.C.E.

    Land, Veterans, and Rural Life

    Industry and Commerce

    The Concentration of Wealth

    Life for the Urban Poor

    Slaves and Freedmen

    Italians and Provincials

    Women in the Late Republic

    New Waves of Hellenization


    Law and the Legal System

    The Religious World of the Late Republic

    Greek Philosophy and the Roman Elite

    Art and Architecture

    Late Republican Literature from the Gracchi to Sulla

    The Novi Poetae

    Catullus (ca. 85 to ca. 54 B.C.E.)

    Lucretius (ca. 94 to ca. 55 B.C.E.)

    Cicero (106 to 43 B.C.E.)

    Sallust (86 to ca. 34 B.C.E.)

    Caesar (100 to 44 B.C.E.)

    Scholarship and Patriotic Antiquarianism

    The Cultural Legacy of the Late Republic

    Chapter 19

    The Principate of the Early Roman Empire Takes Shape, 29 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.

    Sources for the Augustan Principate

    Hopes for Peace

    Problems to be Faced

    Octavian’s Advantages

    The Evolving Constitutional Arrangements of the Principate

    The Nature of the Principate

    The Creation of a Central Administration

    Social Reforms

    Religious Reforms

    Overview and Assessment

    Chapter 20

    Imperial Stabilization under Augustus

    Military Reforms

    Protection of the Emperor

    Fiscal Reforms

    Provincial Reforms

    Conquests in the West

    Solidifying Control of the Balkans, Crete, and Cyrene

    Holding the East

    Road Building

    The Imperial Post (Cursus Publicus)


    Urbanization of the Provinces

    Growth of the Imperial Cult

    The Problem of Succession

    The Death of Augustus

    Chapter 21

    The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture

    The Population and Economic Impact of Rome


    Agricultural Wealth and Urbanization

    Cities of Italy and the Empire

    Nonagricultural Trade and Industry

    The Roman Imperial Coinage

    Architecture and Art


    Vergil (70 to 19 B.C.E.)

    Horace (65 to 8 B.C.E.)

    The Latin Elegists

    Latin Prose Writers

    The Impact of Augustus on Latin Literature

    Greek Writers

    Scholarly and Technical Writings

    Law and Jurisprudence

    The Augustan Achievement

    Chapter 22

    The First Two Julio–Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula), 14 to 41 C.E.

    Sources for the Julio–Claudians

    Tiberius (14 to 37 c.e.)

    Germanicus and Agrippina



    The Law of Treason (Maiestas)

    Tiberius and the Senate: The Increasing Power of the Princeps

    Tiberius the Administrator

    Tiberius’ Last Years and the Succession

    Gaius Caligula (37 to 41 c.e.)

    A Popular Princeps at First

    Problems in the Palace

    Tensions with the Senate

    Caligula’s Military Operations

    Fiscal Problems

    Caligula’s Foreign and Provincial Policies

    Caligula’s Religious Policies

    Caligula’s Assassination

    Overview and Prospect

    Chapter 23

    Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio–Claudians, 41 to 68 c.e.

    Claudius (41 to 54 c.e.)

    The Political Philosophy and Policies of Claudius

    Foreign Policy and Imperial Defense

    Colonization, Urbanization, and Romanization in the Provinces

    Claudius’ Wives

    Claudius’ Death and the Succession of Nero (54 to 68 c.e.)

    Nero Surveyed

    The Darker Side of Nero’s Early Reign

    Nero Asserts Himself

    Growing Hostility Toward Nero

    Plots against the Throne

    Prelude to a Fall

    The Jewish Revolt and the Fall of Nero


    Chapter 24

    The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians, 69 to 96 c.e.


    Galba (68 to 69)

    Otho (69)

    Vitellius (69)

    Vespasian (69 to 79)

    The Restoration of Peace

    Reform of the Army

    Provincial Policy

    The Near East

    Vespasian’s Relations with the Senate

    The Expansion of Executive Power

    Fiscal Administration

    Public Expenditures

    The Opposition to Vespasian

    Vespasian’s Death, 79

    Titus (79 to 81)

    Domitian (81 to 96)

    War and Rebellion, 82 to 93

    Fear, Purges, and the Murder of Domitian, 89 to 96

    Chapter 25

    The Five "Good" Emperors of the Second Century, 96 to 180 c.e.


    Nerva (96 to 98)

    Trajan (98 to 117)

    A Model Emperor

    Trajan’s Wars

    The Death of Trajan, 117

    The Empress Plotina

    The Effects of Trajan’s Wars

    Hadrian (117 to 138)

    The Early Years of Hadrian’s Principate

    Hadrian’s Travels

    The Jewish Revolt

    New Directions under Hadrian

    The Last Years of Hadrian

    Antoninus Pius (138 to 161)

    Faustina the Elder

    Maintaining the Status Quo

    The Legacy of Antoninus

    Marcus Aurelius (161 to 180)

    Marcus Aurelius as Emperor and Soldier

    The Question of Succession

    Problems for the Future

    Chapter 26

    Culture, Society, and Economy in the First Two Centuries c.e.

    Post-Augustan Imperial Literature

    Poverty of Literature under Tiberius and Caligula

    The Blossoming of the Silver Age in Literature under Claudius and Nero

    Technical Writing and Scholarship

    Science and Medicine

    Philology and Literary Scholarship

    Lack of Great Literature under the Flavians, 69 to 96 c.e.

    Resurgence of Literature under the Five "Good" Emperors

    Resurgence of Greek Literature

    The Second Sophistic

    Christian Writers


    General Religious Trends


    Mystery Cults


    Roman Architecture in the First Two Centuries c.e.

    Architecture in the Provinces 359 Sculpture


    Mosaics, Coins, and Medallions

    Social Developments

    Economic Trends

    Inherent Economic and Fiscal Weakness of the Roman Empire

    Chapter 27

    Conflicts and Crises under Commodus and the Severi, 180 to 235 c.e.

    Sources for Roman History, 180 to 285 c.e.

    Commodus (180 to 192)

    Pertinax (January 1 to March 28, 193)

    Didius Julianus (March 28 to June 1, 193)

    The Accession of Septimius Severus (193 to 211)

    New Sources of Imperial Authority and Legitimacy

    Systematic Reform

    Imperial Wars and Defense, 197 to 201/202

    Roman Interlude, 203 to 207

    The War in Britain, 208 to 211

    Caracalla (211 to 217)

    Macrinus (217 to 218)

    Impressive Syrian Queens

    Elagabalus (218 to 222)

    Severus Alexander (222 to 235)

    Chapter 28

    The Third-Century Anarchy, 235 to 285 c.e.

    Reasons for the Crisis

    The Emperors of Troubled Times

    The Nightmare Begins, 235 to 253

    The Age of Gallienus, 253 to 268

    The Reforms of Gallienus

    An Assessment of Gallienus

    Initial Recovery under Illyrian Soldier Emperors, 268 to 275

    The Nightmare Resumes, 275 to 285

    Chapter 29

    Changes in Roman Life and Culture during the Third Century

    Economic Life

    Social Trends

    Third-Century Cultural Life


    Science and Philosophy

    Education and the World of Letters

    Art and Architecture

    Summary and Prospect

    Chapter 30

    Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire, 285 to 305 c.e.

    Sources for Roman History during the Fourth Century c.e.

    The Rise of Diocletian

    The Tetrarchy: A New Form of Imperial Rule, 293 to 312

    Diocletian’s Other Initiatives

    The Persecution of Christians

    The Abdication

    Prisca and Valeria

    Problems Left by Diocletian

    Chapter 31

    Constantine the Great and Christianity, 306 to 337 c.e.

    The Rise of Constantine, 306 to 312

    A Victory for Christianity

    Constantine and Licinius: The Empire Divided, 313 to 324

    Constantia and Her Sisters

    The Council of Nicaea, 325

    Constantine’s Secular Policies

    The Founding of Constantinople, 324 to 330

    The Death of Constantine the Great, 337


    Chapter 32

    From Constantine’s Dynasty to Theodosius the Great, 337 to 395 c.e.

    Murder and Civil War

    The Empire under Constantius II

    Julian the Apostate Emperor (361 to 363)

    Jovian (June 363 to February 364)

    Valentinian I (364 to 375) and Valens (364 to 378)

    Gratian (375 to 383) and Theodosius the Great (379 to 395)

    The Death of Theodosius and the Division of the Empire, 395

    Chapter 33

    The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century c.e.

    Economic Conditions

    Private Life

    The Social Context


    Chapter 34

    Christianity and Classical Culture in the Fourth Century

    Christianity and the Expansion of Classical Culture

    The Educated World of Letters

    Christian Literature of the Fourth Century

    Fourth-Century Art and Architecture

    Chapter 35

    Germanic Takeover in the West and Imperial Survival in the East, 395 to 518 c.e.

    Sources for Roman History from 395 to 518

    Western Weaknesses and Eastern Strengths

    Stilicho and Alaric, 395 to 410

    The Visigothic Migration and Settlement after Alaric

    The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi

    Galla Placidia, Valentinian III (423 to 455), and Aetius

    Attila and the Huns, 443 to 454

    The Burgundians

    The Franks

    Angles, Saxons, and Jutes

    The Vandals in Africa

    The End of Imperial Power in the West, 454 to 500

    Weak Men and Powerful Women: The Theodosian Dynasty in the East, 395 to 450

    Persians and Huns, 408 to 450

    Christian Controversies and Imperial Politics

    German and Isaurian Generals

    Pulcheria and Marcian (450 to 457)

    Leo I (457 to 474)

    Leo II (473 to 474) and Zeno (474 to 491)

    Religious Controversies Continued

    Anastasius (491 to 518)

    Overview and Prospect

    Chapter 36

    Justin, Justinian, and the Impossible Dream of Universal Empire, 518 to 602 c.e.

    Sources for the Period of Justin and Justinian

    The Reign of Justin (518 to 527)

    Justinian (527 to 565)

    Theodora (508 to 548)

    Religious Policies of Theodora and Justinian

    Legal Reforms

    Administrative Reforms

    John the Cappadocian

    The First Persian War, 527 to 532

    The Nika Rebellion of the Blue and Green Circus Factions, 532

    The Rebuilding of Constantinople

    Reconquest of the North African Provinces, 533 to 534

    Italy Is Invaded, 536 to 540

    Troubles in North Africa

    The Second Persian War, 540 to 562

    Resumption of War in Italy, 541 to 543

    Troubles Everywhere

    Internal Conflicts and Administration

    Belisarius Returns to Face Totila in Italy, 544 to 549

    The Lazic War, 549 to 557

    Peace in the East

    Disaster in Italy, 549 to 551

    The Recovery of Italy, 552 to 562

    Wars on Other Fronts, 544 to 561

    Justinian’s Legacy and His Successors, 565 to 602

    Final Judgment

    Chapter 37

    The Transformation of the Late Antique Roman World, 395 to 600 c.e.

    The Economy

    Social and Demographic Changes


    The New Cultural Spirit

    Latin Poetry

    Latin Prose

    Classicizing Greek Poets

    The Late Greek Historians



    Art and Architecture

    Chapter 38

    The Church and the Legacy of Rome

    The Rise of Rome

    Transmitting the Roman Classical Legacy

    The Imperial Church




    Celia E. Schultz is Professor of Classical Studies at the University of Michigan, USA, where she is currently Director of the Interdepartmental Program in Greek and Roman History.

    Allen M. Ward is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Connecticut, USA.

    "This new edition of A History of the Roman People presents a clear, reliable, and accessible survey of the ancient Roman world. The political narrative of the growth and transformation of the Roman Empire is described in fluid and engaging fashion, and social, cultural, and economic topics receive appropriate contextualization. Ancient sources are helpfully introduced at the beginning of chapters, and charming boxes on topics such as poisoning, latrines, and publishing provide colorful detail. This remarkable textbook should be the standard introduction to the Roman world."

    - Carolynn Roncaglia, Santa Clara University, USA



    "In scope and detail, there is no rival among single-volume textbooks. This makes it an excellent choice for year-long surveys of Roman history"

    - Simeon D. Ehrlich, Concordia University, Canada, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2020