A Law Enforcement Sourcebook of Asian Crime and CulturesTactics and Mindsets: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

A Law Enforcement Sourcebook of Asian Crime and CulturesTactics and Mindsets

1st Edition

By Douglas D. Daye

CRC Press

464 pages

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Hardback: 9780849381164
pub: 1996-11-13
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Description

Even in multicultural North America, few whites, blacks, or Hispanics have extensive experience or understanding of Asian culture. For experienced police officers, intelligence analysts, correctional officers, and prosecutors, the problems of cultural differences in behavior remain complex and problematic. This book addresses these specific law enforcement problems, and supplies law enforcement professionals with information and strategies for easier arrests, more accurate intelligence, more successful prosecutions, and fewer problems during incarceration.

Reviews

"Douglas Daye provides an excellent "how to" source book for acquiring and applying cross-cultural skills within the realm of protecting Asian-American communities and fighting Asian organized crime. Anyone serious about working in the field of Asian investigations should add this resource to the library."

-Crime & Justice International

"Chock full of pithy and practical ideas, including checklists and 'Do's and Don'ts,' it is exactly what every police department dealing with Asian crime will want to have in its squad room."

- M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury

"Cops who have been working in the field of Asian investigations for years will learn something from this book. Police officers who have never worked such cases will stand a better chance of success if they have it in their library. It is the kind of book that one will refer to again and again over the years. It is inevitable that this book will be used as the basis for testimony in criminal courts across America in coming years."

- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department

"This book is a 'must have' for any police intelligence operation as well as for any police academy staff that might even think of teaching their officers something about Asian crime and criminals."

- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department

"Cops who have been working in the field of Asian investigations for years will learn something from this book. Police officers who have never worked such cases will stand a better chance of success if they have it in their library. It is the kind of book that one will refer to again and again over the years. It is inevitable that this book will be used as the basis for testimony in criminal courts across America in coming years."

- Lt. Jack Willoughby, New Orleans Police Department

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

"If You Don't Have Much Time"

Things to Keep in Mind

Some Reasons to be Cautious

To Others, We Have a Peculiar Culture, Too!

How Much Cross-Cultural Understanding Is Enough?

A Checklist of Our Own Tolerances for Differences

Be Skeptical!

Basics - What? Why? How? - Benefits, and Sources

Seven Basic Questions

What are Some of the Benefits for Police?

What Cross-Cultural Data Cannot Do: Guidelines, Limitations, and Packaging

Sources, Methods, Applications: Academic and Law Enforcement

Why Some Asians and Asian-Americans may not Like this Book

Culture, Police, and Asian Crime

The Cross-Cultural Context of Asian Crime in America

What Is Culture?

How Are Cultural Traits Conceived and Used?

Cross-Cultural Competency Is Not Just Language Competency

Police as Cross-Cultural Learners

Police as Potential Cross-Cultural Specialists

CULTURAL "DO'S AND DON'TS"

Public Relationships

Asian Images of Police

To Help Asians Get a Better Image of Cops

Asian Families Come First

Check with the Amah

Know and Be Known

Funerals and Weddings

Uniform vs. Plainclothes

Respect and Social Levels

Role Playing

Body Language

How Not To Sit

Yakuza Body Language

Humility

Privacy

Avoidance of Public Confrontation

Honor the Elderly

Indirectness

"Face"

Provocation and "Face"

Guanxi

Street Cops and Guanxi

Gossip is Good

Beeper/Pager Numbers

Street Negotiations

Shake Hands Only with Older Recognized Gang Leaders, not with Younger Gang Members

Intimidate Gang Suspects by Sitting Next to Them

Foreign Courtesy Terms

Don't Use Slang, Parables, or 'Pop' References

Observe and Balance Paybacks

Avoid Co-Option

Holidays, Grand Openings, and Surveillance

Questionable Community Translators

Check Whether the Bunsen Burners are on in the Jewelry Store

Asian Newspapers

Asian Public Apologies

Folk Medicine and Alleged Child Abuse

Passport Profiles

Forged U.S. Visas and Altered Passports

Passports, Visas, and Claims of Diplomatic Immunity

Diplomatic Auto License Plates

Person-to-Person Relationships

Attitudes and Applications

Speak Quietly

Personal Space

Don't Touch

Spend Time in the Streets

Visit the Temples

Identifying Ethnic Groups

Gestures

Other Physical "Don'ts"

Business Cards

Applause

Spitting

Greetings

Polite Topics of Conversation

Silence

Privacy

Saying "No"

Watch Out for the "Yes" Answers

Get Search Warrants, Not Consent To Search

Do Beat Around the Bush

Removing Shoes

Don't Push Things Around with Your Feet

Interviewing Witnesses, Victims, and Monks

Address Elders First

Masks and Fingerprint Identification

Names and Dialect Identification

Ask Direct and Specific Questions: Information will not be Volunteered

Interviews with Police Are "Doing Business"

Get the Specific and Cultural History of the Suspect's Extended Family

Special Family Names

Check Beauty Salon Connections

Quietly Check with Dads for Any "Extracurricular Activities"

Travel Agents

Marian Days

Wives, Concubines, and Mistresses

Threats of Family Gravesite Desecration in Asia

Do the Victims Understand the Bail System?

Hoarding Cash at Home

Greeting Monks, Religious Leaders, and Family Elders

Use Quiet Manners with Unfamiliar Religious Objects

Use an Interpreter with a Monk or Religious Leader

Witnesses and Some Cross-Cultural Aspects of Trials

"But Asians Won't Testify"

Be a Long-Term Friend

Asian Friendship

Home Protection Before Trial

Do Not Make Witnesses Lose "Face"

Protect Witnesses from Gangs

Subpoena Blanks

Avoid Loudmouthed Clerks or Reporters

Use the District Attorney's Explanatory Time for Relevant Cross-Cultural Topics

Educate the Jury About Asian Names

Use Posterboards

Suspect's Appearances

Photograph their Ears

Explain the Uses of Standard Telegraphic Code for Chinese Names

Home Protection After the Trial

Suspect's Records and Affiliations

Know the Suspect's Ethnic Background

Records and Standard Telegraphic Code

Get Three Handwriting Samples of the Suspect's Name in Chinese, Japanese, or Korean Characters

Photo Books

Check Local Hair Salons for Photographs

Gang Mobility

Vietnamese Community "Safe Houses"

Telephone Record Links

Check Motel Phone Books

Check Home Country and Regional Connections

Check Refugee and/or Dialect Connections

Women's Married Names

Aliases may be Legitimate

"INS" Names

Check School and Refugee Organization Connections

Legal Ages

Use INS Agents

Victims Profiles

Interrogating Suspects and Recruiting Informants

Are There Any Significant Differences?

Suggested "Do's and Don'ts"

Assumptions of Reid Interrogation Across Cultures

Interrelations and the Need for Cultural Knowledge

Interrogating Home-Invasion Robbery Suspects

Recruiting Informants

Interrogation and McCarthy's "Gang Crime Magic"

Asian Youth Gangs

What is a Gang and Who are Its Members?

Why Do Some Youths Become Gang Members?

Are Gangs Largely of a Single Ethnic Type?

Levels of Adherence to a Gang

Documentation for Identifying Gang Membership

Gangs as Surrogate "Families"

Home-Invasion Robbery Victim's Profile

Organizational Models and "Pickup" Gangs

Caucasian "Throw-Away" Gang Members

On the "Toughness" of Asian Gang Members

Numbers, Gambling, Tattoos, Food,

and Regionalism

Some Cross-Cultural Crime-Related Aspects of Numbers Gambling

Tattoos and Slang

Food and Eating

Regionalism, Anti-Stereotypes, and Role-Playing

ETHNIC MINDSETS, PROFILES, AND RELIGIONS

Contrasting Chinese and American Mindsets

An Introduction to Mindsets

The Importance and Limitations of Cultural Generalities

Comparative Mindsets: Society, Self, Values, Epistemic Models, Religion, and World Views

Major Components of Chinese Mindsets

Attitudes About Police Authority vs. the Community

Chinese Shame Culture vs. American Guilt Culture

Pragmatic Contextualism

Face

Guanxi

High-Context Asian Cultures vs. Police Low-Context Culture

Formal Manners and "Paybacks" are Important

Business Contracts, Time, and Negotiations

Suggested Readings: Asian Crime and Cross-Cultural Studies

Ethnic Profile: The Chinese

Introduction to the Scope of Chinese Crime

On Introducing and Summarizing Chinese Cultures

Potential Chinese Global Economic Power

A Geographical Sketch of China

Cultural Sketches

Five Deep Cultural Mindsets

"Face" (Mian Zi) and Losing "Face" (Diu Lian)

Self and Its Status

Collectivism vs. Individualism vs. Chinese Group Orientation

Guanxi (Networking): A Key to Chinese Society

Pride in the Ultimate Superiority of Being Chinese

Is Reading Chinese Ethnic Strategists Relevant for Police?

Chinese Language, Names, and Holidays

The Chinese Language

Chinese Names

Chinese Holidays and Festivals

Suggested Readings

Ethnic Profile: The Vietnamese

An Introduction to the Scope of Vietnamese Crime

A Geographical and Historical Sketch

Cultural Sketches

Two Deeper Cultural Mindsets: Village Mentality and Time

Names, Language, and Scripts

Holidays and Calendars

Marian Days: Carthage, Missouri

Suggested Readings

Asian Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism

A Brief Comparative Introduction

Chinese Confucianism

Taoism (Daoism): The Internal Chinese Counterbalance

Buddhism

Buddhist Contextual Pragmatism and Truth

RECORDING, PRESERVING, TRAINING, AND PLANNING

Standard Telegraphic Code (STC)

What is STC?

Why Should STC Be Used? A Hong Kong Example

Translation vs. Transliteration

The Importance of the World Order of Chinese Names

Common Surnames, Personal Names, and Brother Names

An Example from the STC Code Book

The Problem of Nicknames and Suffixes

Asian Police Transliterations/Romanizations

The Absence of Materials and Training Sources

Reference Materials

Preserving the Cross-Cultural Skills Police Already Possess

The Unnoticed Pressures on Asian-American Officers

Supplementing the Planning of Criminal Justice and In-Service Training Programs

A Criminal Justice Prejudice? Cross-Cultural Studies Belong to Social Science

Community Policing and Cross-Cultural Training Programs

Afterword

Appendix A: Chinese Triads, Triad Organizations, and Triad Relationships, Prepared by George F. Harkin, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst

Appendix B: Common Chinese Surnames and Notes on Chinese Language and Dialects, Prepared by Robert M. Hearn, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst

Appendix C: Guanxi: An Important Concept for the Law Enforcement Office, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury

Appendix D: Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in Dealing with Asian Organized Crime, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury

Appendix E: Chinese Culture and the Practice of Actuarial Intelligence, Prepared by Paul Moore, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation

Glossary

Endnotes

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COM053000
COMPUTERS / Security / General
LAW041000
LAW / Forensic Science