1st Edition

# A Mathematical Look at Politics

478 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

477 Pages
by CRC Press

Also available as eBook on:

What Ralph Nader's spoiler role in the 2000 presidential election tells us about the American political system. Why Montana went to court to switch the 1990 apportionment to Dean’s method. How the US tried to use game theory to win the Cold War, and why it didn’t work. When students realize that mathematical thinking can address these sorts of pressing concerns of the political world it naturally sparks their interest in the underlying mathematics.

A Mathematical Look at Politics is designed as an alternative to the usual mathematics texts for students in quantitative reasoning courses. It applies the power of mathematical thinking to problems in politics and public policy. Concepts are precisely defined. Hypotheses are laid out. Propositions, lemmas, theorems, and corollaries are stated and proved. Counterexamples are offered to refute conjectures. Students are expected not only to make computations but also to state results, prove them, and draw conclusions about specific examples.

Tying the liberal arts classroom to real-world mathematical applications, this text is more deeply engaging than a traditional general education book that surveys the mathematical landscape. It aims to instill a fondness for mathematics in a population not always convinced that mathematics is relevant to them.

Preface, for the Student
Preface, for the Instructor

Voting
Two Candidates
Scenario
Two-candidate methods
Supermajority and status quo
Weighted voting and other methods
Criteria
May's Theorem
Exercises and problems
Social Choice Functions
Scenario
Ballots
Social choice functions
Alternatives to plurality
Some methods on the edge
Exercises and problems
Criteria for Social Choice
Scenario
Weakness and strength
Some familiar criteria
Some new criteria
Exercises and problems
Which Methods are Good?
Scenario
Methods and criteria
Proofs and counterexamples
Summarizing the results
Exercises and problems
Arrow's Theorem
Scenario
Statement of the result
Decisiveness
Proving the theorem
Exercises and problems
Variations on the Theme
Scenario
Inputs and outputs
Vote-for-one ballots
Approval ballots
Mixed approval/preference ballots
Cumulative voting .
Condorcet methods
Social ranking functions
Preference ballots with ties
Exercises and problems
Notes on Part I

Apportionment
Hamilton's Method
Scenario
The apportionment problem
Some basic notions
A sensible approach
Exercises and problems
Divisor Methods
Scenario
Jefferson's method
Critical divisors
Assessing Jefferson's method
Other divisor methods
Rounding functions
Exercises and problems
Criteria and Impossibility
Scenario
Basic criteria
Quota rules and the Alabama paradox
Population monotonicity
Relative population monotonicity
Impossibility
Exercises and problems
The Method of Balinski and Young
Scenario
Tracking critical divisors
Satisfying the quota rule
Computing the Balinski-Young apportionment
Exercises and problems
Deciding Among Divisor Methods
Scenario
Why Webster is best
Why Dean is best
Why Hill is best
Exercises and problems
History of Apportionment in the United States
Scenario
The fight for representation
Summary
Exercises and problems
Notes on Part II

Conflict
Strategies and Outcomes
Scenario
Zero-sum games
The naive and prudent strategies
Dominance
Exercises and problems
Chance and Expectation
Scenario
Probability theory
All outcomes are not created equal
Random variables and expected value
Mixed strategies and their payouts
Independent processes
Expected payouts for mixed strategies
Exercises and Problems
Solving Zero-Sum Games
Scenario
The best response
Prudent mixed strategies
An application to counterterrorism
The -by- case
Exercises and problems
Conflict and Cooperation
Scenario
Bimatrix games
Guarantees, saddle points, and all that jazz
Common interests
Some famous games
Exercises and Problems
Nash Equilibria
Scenario
Mixed strategies
The -by- case
The proof of Nash's Theorem
Exercises and Problems
The Prisoner's Dilemma
Scenario
Criteria and Impossibility
Omnipresence of the Prisoner's Dilemma
Repeated play
Irresolvability
Exercises and problems
Notes on Part III

The Electoral College
Weighted Voting
Scenario
Weighted voting methods
Non-weighted voting methods
Voting power
Power of the states
Exercises and problems
Scenario
Violations of criteria
People power
Interpretation
Exercises and problems
Notes on Part IV
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Problems
Bibliography
Index

### Biography

E. Arthur Robinson Jr., Daniel H. Ullman

The book finds a nice compromise between formality and accessibility. The authors take care to build from examples, isolate what is important, and generalize into theorems. It is expected that the reader has only limited mathematical experience, so much effort is put toward making very clear what is and is not being said. … The exercises that close each chapter are interesting and often quite challenging … Topics are introduced and motivated thoughtfully. Definitions are clear, and the authors take the time to explain why they need to be with well-chosen examples. When the proofs come (and they do come), they are set up properly. … The book has plenty of uses other than as a textbook. Instructors teaching a broader liberal arts mathematics course could use it to add depth to these topics or craft supplemental readings and projects. Students of mathematics or politics will find independent study opportunities here, and mathematicians from other areas will find this an enjoyable introduction. This is a very thoughtfully written text that should be made available to anyone with an interest in learning or teaching this topic.
MAA Reviews, July 2011

Tying the liberal arts classroom to real-world mathematical applications, this text is more deeply engaging than a traditional general education book that surveys the mathematical landscape. It aims to instill a fondness for mathematics in a population not always convinced that mathematics is relevant.
— BULLETIN BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE, 2011