392 Pages 190 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Significantly revised and updated since its first publication in 1996, Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, Second Edition discusses the fundamental physics and major applications of absorption chillers. While the popularity of absorption chillers began to dwindle in the United States in the late 1990’s, a shift towards sustainability, green buildings and the use of renewable energy has brought about a renewed interest in absorption heat pump technology. In contrast, absorption chillers captured a large market share in Asia in the same time frame due to relative costs of gas and electricity. In addition to providing an in-depth discussion of fundamental concepts related to absorption refrigeration technology, this book provides detailed modeling of a broad range of simple and advanced cycles as well as a discussion of applications.

    New to the Second Edition:

    • Offers details on the ground-breaking Vapor Surfactant theory of mass transfer enhancement
    • Presents extensively revised computer examples based on the latest version of EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software, including enhanced consistency and internal documentation
    • Contains new LiBr/H2O property routines covering a broad range of temperature and the full range of concentration
    • Utilizes new NH3/H2O helper functions in EES which significantly enhance ease of use
    • Adds a new chapter on absorption technology applications
    • Offers updated absorption fluid transport property information

    Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, Second Edition provides an updated and thorough discussion of the physics and applications of absorption chillers and heat pumps. An in-depth guide to evaluating and simulating absorption systems, this revised edition provides significantly increased consistency and clarity in both the text and the worked examples. The introduction of the vapor surfactant theory is a major new component of the book. This definitive work serves as a resource for both the newcomer and seasoned professional in the field.

    Heat Pumps
    Heat-Driven Heat Pumps
    Description of Current Absorption Chiller Products
    Overview of Absorption Technology Market Trends

    Absorption Cycle Fundamentals

    Carnot Cycles
    Absorption Heat Pump, Type I
    Absorption Heat Pump, Type II
    Absorption Heat Pump as Combination of Rankine Cycles
    Reversible Analysis with Variable Temperatures
    Irreversibilities in Absorption Cycle Processes
    Zero-Order Absorption Cycle Model
    Absorption Cycle Design Optimization
    Homework Problems

    Properties of Working Fluids

    Analytical Treatment of Thermodynamic Properties
    Graphical Perspective on Thermodynamic Properties of Absorption Working Fluids
    Transport Properties
    Homework Problems

    Thermodynamic Processes with Mixtures

    Mixing of Fluids and the Heat of Mixing
    Specific Heat of Mixtures
    Condensation and Evaporation
    Ammonia Purification
    Heat Exchangers
    Homework Problems

    Overview of Water/Lithium Bromide Technology

    Fundamentals of Operation
    Crystallization and Absorber Cooling Requirements
    Corrosion and Materials Compatibility
    Vacuum Requirements
    Octyl Alcohol
    Normal Maintenance and Expected Life
    Homework Problems

    Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Systems

    Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Chiller Operating Conditions
    Single-Effect Cycle with Heat Transfer Models
    Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Heat Transformer
    (Type II Heat Pump)
    Discussion of Available Single-Effect Systems
    Homework Problems

    Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Technology

    Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles
    Solution Circuit Plumbing Options
    Operating Conditions of Double-Effect Machines
    Systems on the Market
    Homework Problems

    Advanced Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles

    Half-Effect Cycle
    Triple-Effect Cycle
    Resorption Cycle
    Homework Problems

    Single-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems

    Properties of Ammonia and Safety Concerns
    Material Considerations
    Water Content of the Refrigerant Vapor
    Simple Single-Stage Ammonia/Water System
    Measures to Improve Single-Stage Performance
    Comparison of Ammonia/Water and Water/Lithium Bromide
    Examples of Ammonia/Water Absorption Systems in Operation
    Homework Problems

    Two-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems

    Double-Effect Ammonia/Water Systems
    Double-Lift Ammonia/Water Systems
    Two-Stage, Triple-Effect Ammonia/Water System
    Homework Problems

    Generator/Absorber Heat Exchange Cycles

    Concepts, Configurations, and Design Considerations
    Branched GAX Cycle
    GAX Cycle Hardware
    Homework Problems

    Diffusion–Absorption Cycle

    Cycle Physics
    Choice of the Auxiliary Gas
    Total Pressure of the System
    Cycle Performance

    Applications of Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps

    Industrial Waste Heat Utilization
    Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling
    Solar Absorption Cooling


    Using EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to Solve Absorption Cycle Problems    
    Recommended Way to Use EES (Example Problem 22)
    Property Data in EES
    Lithium-Bromide Water Property Libraries
    Ammonia-Water Property Library
    Coaxing a Set of Equations to Converge (Example 101)

    Absorption Cycle Modeling  
    Mass Balance Considerations  
    Energy Balances  
    Heat Transfer Processes  
    Equation and Variable Counting  
    Convergence Issues and Importance of Selecting an Initial Guess  
    Equation Solvers  

    Modeling a Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller
    Mass Balances
    Temperature Inputs
    Energy Balances
    UA Models      

    Modeling an Ammonia-Water Absorption Chiller

    The ABSIM Software Package
    Introduction to ABSIM  
    ABSIM Program Structure  
    Selected Examples of ABSIM Simulations  
    LiBr-Water Cycles
    Water-Ammonia Cycles
    LiCl-H2O Open and Hybrid Cycles

    Vapor Surfactant Theory  
    Vapor Surfactant Theory
    Key Experimental Results
    Drop Proximity Experiment
    Active Surface Experiment
    Surface Tension Measurements
    Effect of flux on Enhancement
    Modeling Marangoni Flows with Vapor Surfactant Effects


    Keith E. Herold started working in absorption refrigeration during his PhD studies at The Ohio State University, Columbus. This research focus was motivated by his work at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, where he was involved in building and running custom absorption refrigeration cycles under contract to the US Department of Energy, among others. Subsequent to those experiences, he joined the University of Maryland, College Park, where he was the director of the Sorption Systems Consortium, which was funded by various companies. Dr. Herold has authored approximately 50 publications on the subject of absorption refrigeration and his group developed the vapor surfactant theory of mass transfer enhancement.

    Reinhard Radermacher holds a diploma and PhD in physics from the Technical University of Munich, Germany, and conducts research in heat transfer and working fluids for energy conversion systems—in particular, heat pumps, air conditioners, refrigeration systems, and integrated cooling heating and power systems. His work resulted in nearly 400 publications, as well as numerous invention records and patents. He has coauthored three books on absorption and vapor compression heat pumps. His research includes the development of software for the design and optimization of heat pumps and air conditioners, which is now in use at more than 60 companies worldwide.

    Sanford A. Klein is an Emeritus Professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his PhD in chemical engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1976, and has been a faculty member since 1977. He is the author or coauthor of more than 160 publications relating to energy systems. Professor Klein’s current research interests are in thermodynamics, refrigeration, and solar energy applications. In addition, he has been actively involved in the development of engineering computer tools for both instruction and research and the author of the EES program.

    "There are a number of published books on the technologies of refrigeration and heat pump[s] but most of them focus on compression refrigeration/heat pump cycles. To my knowledge, the book Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps is the most comprehensive in covering all [of] the essential knowledge in the areas of absorption chillers and heat pumps. These include fundamentals, working fluid selections, single and double stage absorption systems, applications and modellings."
    —Dr. Yunting Ge, Brunel University London, UK