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2nd Edition

Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps




ISBN 9781498714341
Published April 4, 2016 by CRC Press
354 Pages 190 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Significantly revised and updated since its first publication in 1996, Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, Second Edition discusses the fundamental physics and major applications of absorption chillers. While the popularity of absorption chillers began to dwindle in the United States in the late 1990’s, a shift towards sustainability, green buildings and the use of renewable energy has brought about a renewed interest in absorption heat pump technology. In contrast, absorption chillers captured a large market share in Asia in the same time frame due to relative costs of gas and electricity. In addition to providing an in-depth discussion of fundamental concepts related to absorption refrigeration technology, this book provides detailed modeling of a broad range of simple and advanced cycles as well as a discussion of applications.

New to the Second Edition:

  • Offers details on the ground-breaking Vapor Surfactant theory of mass transfer enhancement
  • Presents extensively revised computer examples based on the latest version of EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software, including enhanced consistency and internal documentation
  • Contains new LiBr/H2O property routines covering a broad range of temperature and the full range of concentration
  • Utilizes new NH3/H2O helper functions in EES which significantly enhance ease of use
  • Adds a new chapter on absorption technology applications
  • Offers updated absorption fluid transport property information

Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, Second Edition provides an updated and thorough discussion of the physics and applications of absorption chillers and heat pumps. An in-depth guide to evaluating and simulating absorption systems, this revised edition provides significantly increased consistency and clarity in both the text and the worked examples. The introduction of the vapor surfactant theory is a major new component of the book. This definitive work serves as a resource for both the newcomer and seasoned professional in the field.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Heat Pumps
Heat-Driven Heat Pumps
Description of Current Absorption Chiller Products
Overview of Absorption Technology Market Trends

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals

Carnot Cycles
Absorption Heat Pump, Type I
Absorption Heat Pump, Type II
Absorption Heat Pump as Combination of Rankine Cycles
Reversible Analysis with Variable Temperatures
Irreversibilities in Absorption Cycle Processes
Zero-Order Absorption Cycle Model
Absorption Cycle Design Optimization
Homework Problems
References

Properties of Working Fluids

Analytical Treatment of Thermodynamic Properties
Graphical Perspective on Thermodynamic Properties of Absorption Working Fluids
Transport Properties
Homework Problems
References

Thermodynamic Processes with Mixtures

Mixing of Fluids and the Heat of Mixing
Specific Heat of Mixtures
Desorption
Absorption
Condensation and Evaporation
Compression
Pumping
Throttling
Ammonia Purification
Heat Exchangers
Homework Problems
References

Overview of Water/Lithium Bromide Technology

Fundamentals of Operation
Crystallization and Absorber Cooling Requirements
Corrosion and Materials Compatibility
Vacuum Requirements
Octyl Alcohol
Normal Maintenance and Expected Life
Controls
Homework Problems
References

Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Systems

Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Chiller Operating Conditions
Single-Effect Cycle with Heat Transfer Models
Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Heat Transformer
(Type II Heat Pump)
Discussion of Available Single-Effect Systems
Homework Problems
References

Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Technology

Double-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles
Solution Circuit Plumbing Options
Operating Conditions of Double-Effect Machines
Systems on the Market
Homework Problems
References

Advanced Water/Lithium Bromide Cycles

Half-Effect Cycle
Triple-Effect Cycle
Resorption Cycle
Homework Problems
References

Single-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems

Properties of Ammonia and Safety Concerns
Material Considerations
Water Content of the Refrigerant Vapor
Simple Single-Stage Ammonia/Water System
Measures to Improve Single-Stage Performance
Comparison of Ammonia/Water and Water/Lithium Bromide
Examples of Ammonia/Water Absorption Systems in Operation
Homework Problems
References

Two-Stage Ammonia/Water Systems

Double-Effect Ammonia/Water Systems
Double-Lift Ammonia/Water Systems
Two-Stage, Triple-Effect Ammonia/Water System
Homework Problems
References

Generator/Absorber Heat Exchange Cycles

Concepts, Configurations, and Design Considerations
Branched GAX Cycle
GAX Cycle Hardware
Homework Problems
References

Diffusion–Absorption Cycle

Introduction
Cycle Physics
Choice of the Auxiliary Gas
Total Pressure of the System
Cycle Performance
References

Applications of Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps

Industrial Waste Heat Utilization
Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling
Solar Absorption Cooling
References

Appendices

Using EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to Solve Absorption Cycle Problems    
Overview  
Recommended Way to Use EES (Example Problem 22)
Property Data in EES
Lithium-Bromide Water Property Libraries
Ammonia-Water Property Library
Coaxing a Set of Equations to Converge (Example 101)
Conclusion

Absorption Cycle Modeling  
Introduction  
Mass Balance Considerations  
Energy Balances  
Heat Transfer Processes  
Equation and Variable Counting  
Convergence Issues and Importance of Selecting an Initial Guess  
Equation Solvers  

Modeling a Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller
Mass Balances
Temperature Inputs
Energy Balances
UA Models      
Summary          

Modeling an Ammonia-Water Absorption Chiller

The ABSIM Software Package
Overview  
Introduction to ABSIM  
ABSIM Program Structure  
Selected Examples of ABSIM Simulations  
LiBr-Water Cycles
Water-Ammonia Cycles
LiCl-H2O Open and Hybrid Cycles

Vapor Surfactant Theory  
Introduction  
Background       
Vapor Surfactant Theory
Key Experimental Results
Drop Proximity Experiment
Active Surface Experiment
Surface Tension Measurements
Effect of flux on Enhancement
Modeling Marangoni Flows with Vapor Surfactant Effects
Summary
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Keith E. Herold started working in absorption refrigeration during his PhD studies at The Ohio State University, Columbus. This research focus was motivated by his work at Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, where he was involved in building and running custom absorption refrigeration cycles under contract to the US Department of Energy, among others. Subsequent to those experiences, he joined the University of Maryland, College Park, where he was the director of the Sorption Systems Consortium, which was funded by various companies. Dr. Herold has authored approximately 50 publications on the subject of absorption refrigeration and his group developed the vapor surfactant theory of mass transfer enhancement.

Reinhard Radermacher holds a diploma and PhD in physics from the Technical University of Munich, Germany, and conducts research in heat transfer and working fluids for energy conversion systems—in particular, heat pumps, air conditioners, refrigeration systems, and integrated cooling heating and power systems. His work resulted in nearly 400 publications, as well as numerous invention records and patents. He has coauthored three books on absorption and vapor compression heat pumps. His research includes the development of software for the design and optimization of heat pumps and air conditioners, which is now in use at more than 60 companies worldwide.

Sanford A. Klein is an Emeritus Professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his PhD in chemical engineering at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1976, and has been a faculty member since 1977. He is the author or coauthor of more than 160 publications relating to energy systems. Professor Klein’s current research interests are in thermodynamics, refrigeration, and solar energy applications. In addition, he has been actively involved in the development of engineering computer tools for both instruction and research and the author of the EES program.

Reviews

"There are a number of published books on the technologies of refrigeration and heat pump[s] but most of them focus on compression refrigeration/heat pump cycles. To my knowledge, the book Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps is the most comprehensive in covering all [of] the essential knowledge in the areas of absorption chillers and heat pumps. These include fundamentals, working fluid selections, single and double stage absorption systems, applications and modellings."
—Dr. Yunting Ge, Brunel University London, UK